What are the downsides to Telangana after the breakup

PROJECT REPORT. Project country: India. Title: Telangana, the 29th Indian state


1 PROJECT REPORT Project country: India Title: Telangana, the 29th Indian state. Everyday life is slowly returning in the 13 districts of the Seemandhra 1 region in Andhra Pradesh, South India. According to media reports, schools and government offices are open again and transport is running again. The central government in New Delhi has announced the establishment of Telangana as the twenty-ninth federal state in India: The state of Andhra Pradesh has been divided into two federal units. This triggered a wave of protests in the coastal region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, which largely paralyzed public life. After a 66-day strike, Andhra Pradesh Prime Minister N. Kiran Kumar Reddy and the Government Workers' Association agreed to resume work. The people of Telangana are deeply relieved after the end of the strike and now hope that the necessary formation processes for their new federal state will take place at an appropriate pace. The strike was ended by a natural disaster, of all things. In October, Phailin, the strongest cyclone in 14 years, hit the country. India's state of Andhra Pradesh, with a coastline of 972 km (the longest coastline of any state), was hit particularly hard. Up to a million people had to be brought to safety in Andhra Pradesh, 23 people died. This initially stopped the protests against the split, which put a heavy burden on the state. Where are Telangana and Andhra Pradesh located? Telangana is one of the three regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh. With an area of ​​km, this is the fifth largest state in India. Since Telangana is to become an independent state, the remaining regions of Coastal Andhra and Rayalasima in the southwest will form the future Andhra Pradesh, which is also called Sea Mandhra. What religions are there in Telangana? 84% Hindus, 12.4% Muslims and 3.2% Sikhs, Christians and others. How many people will live in the future Telangana? Telangana has more than 35 million inhabitants. About 50 million people live in the rest of Andhra Pradesh. In terms of population and area, it is comparable to Germany. Hanns Seidel Foundation_Political Special Report_India_28. October

2 What professional activities do the people do there? Most people make a living from the coal industry, but handicrafts and the textile industry are also important sources of income. Agriculture is only marginally possible due to the scarcity of water and the barren soil in Telangana with one harvest per year or a maximum of two. 2 Is Telangana / Andhra Pradesh a rich state? Andhra Pradesh has a long coastline, is well developed with a good infrastructure: road and train connections, hardly any Naxalite 3 presence and natural resources. Along with Hyderabad with 6.8 million inhabitants, Vishakhapatnam with 1.7 million inhabitants is the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh and an important industrial location. Vishakhapatnam has India's most important overseas port, where bulk goods such as iron ore, mineral oils, coal and fertilizers are handled. Telangana borders the state of Chatthisgarh, the focal point of the Naxalite problem and thus an obstacle to the general stability of the region. Telangana is a landlocked country and has no major industrial access to the sea. In general, the region benefits from the industrial city of Hyderabad. Are there natural resources in Telangana? Andhra Pradesh is one of the most resource-rich states in India. 20% of India's coal reserves are in the Telangana region and 45% of the forest areas of Andhra Pradesh are also in Telangana. The rest of the area is mostly wasteland. In addition, natural gas and, to a lesser extent, oil are produced in the southern areas of Andhra Pradesh, near the deltas of the Krishna and Godavari rivers. In addition, Andhra Pradesh is India's third largest electricity producer and more than half of its energy needs are met by fossil fuels, around 40 percent by hydropower. 4 What is the capital of Andhra Pradesh? With 6.8 million inhabitants (and 7.7 million in the agglomeration), Hyderabad is the fourth largest city in India and, alongside Bangalore, one of the country's most important IT centers. It is located in the center of the Dekkan plateau in the Telangana region. What should be the future capital of AP and T? For the next 10 years, Hyderabad capital is planned for Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, after which Hyderabad will be transferred to Telangana. Who is calling for the new state of Telangana? The residents had been demanding the division of the particularly poor region for decades because they felt they were disadvantaged by the state government. In year () 3 Naxalites is a term used for militant communist groups and movements operating across India. 4 Holtbrügge, Dirk & Friedmann, Carina: Business success in India, Springer, 2011, p. 55 Hanns Seidel Foundation_Political Special Report_India_28. October

3 the Telangana Rasthra Samithi (TRS) was founded, whose main agenda is to split off the region from Andhra Pradesh and to found its own federal state. After days of violent protests, the Indian government announced in December 2009 that Telangana would become an independent state. 5 On July 30, 2013, the central government finally approved the creation of the new state. 6 Opinions in the population about this decision differ widely. 7 Since when has a new state been required? The dispute over the establishment of the new state began in the 1950s. At that time it was the task of a government committee to reorganize India after independence in 1947. Government units from the colonial era and previously independent principalities were combined into federal states whose borders were drawn on a linguistic basis. 8 Will civil society benefit from the division? Telangana provides 45% of the Andhra Pradesh state budget, but receives only 28% of the expenditure. Another central point of criticism is the distribution of the water. The Nagarjuna Dam is 150 meters high and 1.6 kilometers long in the Telangan district of Nalgonda, but it primarily irrigates districts in Andhra. The Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers run through the Mahbubnagar district in Telangana, but the district is consistently drought because not a single project has been implemented to use the water. 40% of the rural population in this district is forced to look for work elsewhere each year. While two or even three harvests per year are possible in several districts of Andhra, the people in Telangana often lack drinking water. 9 The privatization policy of the regional government (from 1983 to 1989 and from 1995 to 2009 the regional Telugu Desam Party ruled, otherwise always the Congress Party) is another issue that created tension within the population. Between 2005 and 2008, for example, the state government sold land in and around Hyderabad worth the equivalent of 2.7 million euros. The money was mainly used for the infrastructure in Andhra and Rayalaseema. 10 Who will benefit most from the division? Telengana is the trump card of the nationwide operating congress party with the head of government Dr. Manmohan Singh and the party president Sonia Gandhi, 5 () 6 see also attachment () html () 9 () 10 () Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung_Politischer Sonderbericht_Indien_28. October

4 because Telangana has 17 seats in Lok Sabha 11 and 119 Assembly has 12 seats. Andhra Pradesh has a total of 294 assembly seats. If the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) unite with Congress after the 2014 elections, they can get a majority of 60 Assembly seats and LS seats. In Seemandhra, with 25 Lok Sabha and 175 Assembly seats, the simple majority is 80. The Congress Party currently has 97 seats, but the current events mean the chances are rather slim. Jaganmohan Reddy, president of YSR Congress Party 13, who has just been released from prison, fasted in October 2013 to protest the division of Andhra Pradesh. His party will have a decisive say in the future of Andhra Pradesh in the 2014 national elections. The party is rather critical of the Congress government. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) candidate for Prime Minister Narendra Modi has already started talks with him, but at the same time he is also in contact with the Telugu Desam Party (TDP). 14 How did Andhra Pradesh come about? In 1947 India had 562 kingdoms and princely states ruled by Indian rulers, as well as 11 territories controlled by the British colonial administration. After India's independence and the founding of the Indian Republic, the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru commissioned the state reorganization commission in December 1953 to draw up a draft for the reorganization of the states along the language borders. The results of this draft became law in August 1956. On this basis, the state of Andhra Pradesh was established on November 1, 1956, uniting the northern, Telugu-speaking regions of the former Madras presidency with Telangana, part of the former princely state of Hyderabad. 15 There was great concern about unification among the people of Telangana. This feared the dominance of the socially and economically more developed regions of Andhra, which the commission was well aware of. 16 And so the commission recommended that the merger should only take place with the consent of the people of Telangana. But the central government ignored this recommendation. Instead, it decided to distribute the state budget according to the income of the regions for at least the first five years. The education system in Telangana should 11 Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Indian parliament. AP sends 42 members of the government to the House of Commons in New Delhi. 12 Provincial government of Andhra Pradesh in Hyderabad with 294 seats 13 The Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party is a regional political party in AP # () html () 16 For detailed information on the history of Telangana see () Hanns Seidel-Stiftung_Politischer Sonderbericht_Indien_28. October

5 and reserved for local students. Government offices should be divided proportionally and public service posts should be allocated according to the proportion of the population. If the prime minister comes from Andhra, the deputy regional premier must come from Telangana or vice versa. 17 But these promises were not kept. The public administration is still dominated by employees from Andhra, the Telangans also continue to feel disadvantaged in the education sector and ultimately the office of deputy prime minister was never filled. The first demonstrations took place at the beginning of 1969. Opposition members of the regional parliament threatened to take direct action in support of the protesting students and teaching staff. This was followed by some verbal concessions, but they were not enough. As a result, thousands blocked the streets, stopped trains and devastated administrative buildings. Public life came to a standstill, exams were canceled, schools and offices closed. The police shot and killed 370 students and young people within a year. 18 Why has the Indian government decided to establish Telangana at this point in time? The decision of the government in Delhi for the new federal state is seen by many critics as an election tactic. In India, elections will take place at the national level in early 2014. In Andhra Pradesh, the Congress Party would currently have little chance of an election victory. Opponents of the partition believe that by partitioning Andhra Pradesh, Congress wanted to secure the support of voters in the new state. However, political analysts fear that this decision could give a boost to similar campaigns in other regions and lead to the dismemberment of India. 19 Have there been other examples of state division in the history of Indian federalism? Yes, for example the establishment of the state of Punjab in 1966, which is mostly inhabited by Sikhs. From 1972 to 1987, a number of regions in the troubled northeast were granted state status: Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur and Mizoram. In 2000, new constituent states of Uttaranchal Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand were created from parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. 20 Why are there protests after the announcement of the separation? The establishment of Telegana is the result of a conflict that has lasted for decades. Apart from Hyderabad, the Telangana region is less prosperous than the 17 () 18 () 19 () 20 Clemens Jürgenmeiner, The Indian Democracy - A Working Anarchy, In: India - Challenges and Perspectives. Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 2009, S Hanns Seidel Foundation_Political Special Report_India_28. October

6 more industrialized coastal region. The inhabitants of the Seemandhra region, however, do not want to give up their rich capital and fear that Andhra Pradesh could sink into insignificance in the future. Therefore protests have been dominating events in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema since the end of July 2013. There were local attacks and curfews were occasionally imposed. Transport connections were interrupted, the power supply was impaired. Schools, universities and businesses have had to remain closed in the southern part of Andhra Pradesh. Numerous ministers of the state government and also state secretaries resigned after the announcement. The head of the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), Chandrababu Naidu, also began his fasting protest against the partition in New Delhi in early October 2013, which was violently stopped by the police on October 11, 2013. 21 Who is interested in the status quo? There are also independent forces looking for a solution. Samajik Telangana 22, for example, is a group of intellectuals who take a critical position and organize debates. As long as the question of democracy does not play a role in the discussions, nothing will change for the people of Telangana, says Dr. S. Simhadri, Professor of Geography at Osmania University. All parties, whether Congress Party, BJP or Telangana Rashtra Samiti, are only concerned with political power. 94% of the population belong to the marginalized, disadvantaged and oppressed groups and castes. And for them nothing would change under the current circumstances: their social, economic, cultural and political misery does not disappear with the proclamation of a new state. 23 But this opinion is shared by only a few. 24 Are there other possible areas for federal division? The tensions in the federal structure of the country are visible across the country. The Gorkhas, a Nepalese-speaking minority whose areas are in the tea-growing region of Darjeeling in the state of West Bengal, first made their demand for Gorkhaland in 1907. In the northeast, several tribes demand their independence, e.g. In the federal state of Assam, the Bodo tribe is demanding its own state, Bodoland, despite already granted extensive autonomy. Mayawati, the former prime minister of the most populous state of Uttar Pradesh, had already suggested that the state of Uttar Pradesh be divided into four during her tenure. In some cases, states also want to get rid of subregions. The Vidarbha region, which is completely neglected and impoverished in the opinion of activists, is known for thousands of suicides of 21 () 22 Translated Social Telangana 23 () 24 For detailed information see () Hanns Seidel Foundation_Political Special Report_India_28. October

For example, 7 impoverished farmers are to be removed from the state of Maharashtra. 25 Further examples are Bundelkhand (Madhya Pradesh), Coorg (Karnataka), Saurashtra (Gujarat) or Mithalanchal (Bihar). How does it go next? Fundamentally, the establishment of the new state of Telangana cannot be seen as the end of the Indian Union. This new state will also have a population in the tens of millions. It can also be assumed that the interrelationship between smaller states and central government will increase. A comparable case in India is the division of the state of Punjab into Punjab and Haryana with the common capital Chandigarh, which has now received the status of its own union territory 26.Telangana and the rest of Andhra Pradesh claim Hyderabad for themselves, so it would be possible to use the successful Chandigarhs model for this conflict (after the 10 years have elapsed). There are already voices in the Congress party calling for Hyderabad to be given the status of a union territory already mentioned, in order to accommodate the opponents of the division of Andhra Pradesh. 27 According to media reports, Andhra Pradesh's Interior Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde is already in talks on how to reform the Seemandhra region. A new Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), some research institutes, an Indian Institute of Management (IIM), a subway, an international airport and an All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are just a few of the potential projects that can be used as appeasement the residents should serve. 28 Dr. Volker Bauer The author works abroad for the Hanns Seidel Foundation in New Delhi, India Contribution with the collaboration of Jennifer Reckwell. IMPRINT Created: 28.October 2013 Publisher: Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung e.v., Copyright 2013 Lazarettstr. 33, Munich Chairman: Prof. Dr. h.c. mult. Hans Zehetmair, retired Minister of State, Senator E.h. Chief Executive Officer: Dr. Peter Witterauf Responsible: Christian J. Hegemer, Head of the Institute for International Cooperation Tel. +49 (0) Fax () / () 27 () 28 () Hanns Seidel Foundation_Political Special Report_India_28. October