What is the best source of biofuel
Biofuels and alternative fuels
Biofuels such as bioethanol or biodiesel have been making a contribution to climate protection and energy supply for several years. Because it is the strategy of the federal government that the transport sector also contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
The main objectives are set across the EU: At European level, the Renewable Energy Sources Directive 2009/28 / EC (PDF: 1.3 MB) stipulates that every member state in the transport sector in 2020 should have at least ten percent of final energy consumption from renewable sources reached. In addition, according to the EU Fuel Quality Directive 2009/30 / EC (PDF: 1.1 MB), greenhouse gas emissions from fuels must be reduced by at least six percent by 2020. Biofuels will play an essential role in achieving both goals.
To this end, the federal government has set greenhouse gas reduction quotas in the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG, PDF: 190 KB): Companies in the mineral oil industry are obliged to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the total amount of fossil gasoline, fossil diesel fuel and biofuel they put on the market by 3.5 in 2015 and 2016 Percent, from 2017 to 2019 by 4 percent and from 2020 by 6 percent compared to a reference value to be calculated. For this purpose, among other things, the greenhouse gas emissions must be determined for each individual amount of biofuel and substantiated by proof of sustainability.
In order to ensure the environmental compatibility of biofuels, the federal government has issued a biofuel sustainability ordinance (Biokraft-NachV, PDF: 355.3 KB). According to this, biofuels are only considered to be sustainably produced if - taking into account the entire production and supply chain - they save at least 35 percent of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels. The percentage increases to 50 percent for systems that were commissioned by October 5, 2015. Furthermore, no areas with a high carbon content or high biodiversity may be used to grow plants for biofuel production. Likewise, only those raw materials may be used that come from sustainable cultivation, for which detailed specifications are made from the point of view of nature and environmental protection. Raw materials from primary forests such as rainforest areas are excluded.
The amendment to the directive on the quality of fuels and the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (amending directive 2015/1513 / EU) aims to avoid indirect land use change (ILUC) in the promotion of biofuels. This is to be achieved by the fact that "conventional" biofuels (made from starch, sugar and vegetable oils) can only be counted up to a share of 7 percent of the EU target of 10 percent renewable energies in transport. The remaining 3 percent should primarily be covered by biofuels made from residual and waste materials as well as advanced biofuels (e.g. from cellulose). In addition, through electricity used in rail transport and in electric vehicles. The member states have until 2017 to implement the amending directive.
When it comes to biofuel policy, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy pays particular attention to ensuring that it is economically and technology-neutral. Alternative fuels such as biomethane, which is a biogas upgraded to natural gas quality, is obtained from energy crops and agricultural residues. It can be fed to the filling stations via the existing natural gas network and filled up there as fuel. Throughout Germany, 81,423 natural gas vehicles (Federal Motor Transport Authority as of 1.1.2015) can be refueled with natural gas at 916 filling stations. However, biomethane and natural gas have so far only made up a small part of total fuel sales.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), which consists of propane, butane or their mixtures, has also been used in traffic for many years. It is the most widely used alternative fuel in the world. In Germany, LPG can be filled up at 6,699 filling stations. According to the Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA), 494,148 (as of 1.1.2015) cars run on LPG in Germany.
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