Where was Gatorade made first

Gatorade - Gatorade

Manufacturer of sports drinks and food

Gatorade is an American sports drinks and products brand based on the typical sports drink line. Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo and sold in over 80 countries. The drink was first developed in 1965 by a team of researchers led by Robert Cade. It was originally developed for the Gators at the University of Florida to replenish the carbohydrates that the school's student athletes burned and the combination of water and electrolytes that they lost in sweat from strenuous exercise.

Originally manufactured and sold by Stokely-Van Camp, the Gatorade brand was acquired by the Quaker Oats Company in 1983, which in turn were purchased by PepsiCo in 2000. As of 2010, Gatorade is PepsiCo's fourth largest brand based on global annual retail sales. It competes with Coca-Cola's Powerade and Vitamin brands worldwide and with Lucozade in the UK. In the US, Gatorade accounts for about 75% of the market share in the sports drinks category.

history

University of Florida soccer player Chip Hinton tested Gatorade in 1965, pictured next to his team of inventors, Robert Cade.

Gatorade was founded in 1965 by a team of scientists at the University of Florida College of Medicine, including Robert Cade, Dana Shires, Harry James Free, and Alejandro de Quesada. At the request of Florida Gators head coach Ray Graves, Gatorade was created to help athletes by acting as a replacement for body fluids lost during exercise. The earliest version of the drink consisted of a mixture of water, sodium, sugar, potassium, phosphate, and lemon juice. Ten players on the University of Florida soccer team tested the first version of Gatorade during practice and games in 1965, and the tests were deemed successful. Star quarterback Steve Spurrier, on the other hand, said, "I have no answer on whether or not the Gatorade helped us be a better team in the second half ... We drank it, but we did second helped. " half who knows? “Even so, the soccer team credited Gatorade for contributing to their first Orange Bowl win against the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets in 1967. At that point, the drink was gaining traction in the sports community. When asked why his team lost, I replied Yellow Jackets coach Bobby Dodd: "We didn't have a Gatorade. That made the difference. "

The University of Florida researchers initially considered naming their product "Gator-Aid". However, they chose the Gatorade name because the researchers wanted to create a commercial product, not a scientifically validated one. Darren Rovell notes his story of Gatorade, First in Thirst . "Doctors realized that they probably shouldn't use the 'Aid' suffix, as it would mean that if the drink were ever marketed they would have to prove it did." clear medical use and clinical testing on thousands of people. "Gatorade co-inventor Dana Shires said," We were told you couldn't use this because the Food and Drug Administration banned it. That would classify it as something other than cola or soft drink, so we changed it to goodbye. "

For example, some were skeptical that the product's effect was more than a placebo effect. Cade noted, "If you told a soccer player that you were giving him Demerol for pain relief and instead giving him a placebo, there is a 30% chance that the placebo would relieve pain as much as taking Demerol would have done. "

Shortly after the 1969 Orange Bowl, Robert Cade entered into an agreement that gave Stokely-Van Camp, Inc. (SVC), a canned food packaging company, US rights to manufacture and sell Gatorade as a commercial product. That same year, Gatorade became the official sports drink of the National Football League (NFL) under a licensing agreement, the first in the history of professional sports sponsorship for the Gatorade brand. A year after its commercial launch, S-VC tested several variations of the original Gatorade recipe and eventually settled on tastier variations in lemon, lime and orange flavors. This reformulation also removed the sweetener cyclamate, which was banned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1969, and replaced it with additional fructose. In the early 1970s, legal questions arose as to whether or not the researchers who invented Gatorade were entitled to ownership of their royalties, having worked on a federal government research grant that provided financial grants. The University of Florida also claimed partial property rights, which were settled in 1973 in the form of a settlement that gave the university a 20% share of the Gatorade royalties. By 2009, the university had received more than $ 150 million from its stake and was receiving approximately $ 12 million a year.

The Quaker Oats Company bought SVC and Gatorade in 1983 after a bidding war with rival Pillsbury for $ 220 million. For the first two decades of production, Gatorade was primarily sold and distributed in the United States. Starting in the 1980s, the company expanded the sales of Gatorade and ventured to Canada in 1984, Asia in 1987, South America and parts of Europe in 1988 and Australia in 1993. In 1990 Gatorade introduced Gatorade Light, a low-calorie version sweetened with saccharin. The international expansion cost US $ 20 million in 1996 alone. However, the resulting efforts resulted in worldwide sales of $ 283 million in more than 45 countries in the same year. In 1997, the distribution of Gatorade in another 10 countries led to sales growth of 18.7%.

In 2001, multinational food and beverage company PepsiCo acquired Gatorade's parent company, Quaker Oats Company, for $ 13 billion to add Gatorade to its brand portfolio. PepsiCo also recently developed All Sport, which it sold shortly after acquiring Quaker, in order to comply with antitrust regulations. Gatorade's global development continued into the 2000s, including expansion into India in 2004 and the UK and Ireland in 2008. As of 2010, Gatorade products were offered for sale in more than 80 countries. Number one in annual retail sales in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, Gatorade is also a leading sports beverage brand in Korea and Australia.

As the spread of Gatorade outside of the United States expanded, localized flavors were introduced to suit regional tastes and cultural preferences, among other things. For example, Blueberry is available in Colombia and a pineapple flavor of Gatorade is sold in Brazil. In Australia, the flavors include Antarctic Freeze and Wild Water Rush. Some flavors that were discontinued in the USA, such as Alpine Snow and Starfruit, have since been offered in other countries.

In 2011, Gatorade was reintroduced to New Zealand by Bluebird Foods, a PepsiCo subsidiary in New Zealand. The product is manufactured in Australia by Schweppes Australia, imported to New Zealand and sold together with Bluebird potato chips.

Products

Lemon and lime gatorade in a glass bottle, circa 1970s

In the early years, the Gatorade brand consisted of a single line of products, Gatorade Thirst Quencher, which was produced in liquid and powder form with two flavors: Lemon Lime and orange . These remained the only two flavor options for almost 20 years, until 1983 the Fruit punch flavor added has been. 1988 became a Citrus Cooler- Introduced taste. The surge in popularity of this flavor was largely due to Michael Jordan, who declared it was his favorite flavor at the height of his NBA career in the early 1990s. That claim appeared on packaging from 1991 under a 10-year endorsement contract. The flavor of Citrus Cooler was reportedly discontinued sometime in the 1990s. However, as of 2011, it will be listed as a current product in the US. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, and in the late 1990s to early 2000s, a brand of Gatorade chewing gum was named Gator Gum produced. The product made by Fleer Corporation was available in both original Gatorade flavors (lemon-lime and orange). In the late 1970s, Stokely-Van Camp (owner of Gatorade before 1983) negotiated a long-term license agreement with Swell and Vicks to market Gator Gum. The chewing gum was discontinued in 1989 after the contract expired.

It wasn't until the mid and late 1990s that Gatorade drinks became available in a wider range of flavors. These were the first flavor enhancements Watermelon (Introduced in 1995) and Cherry Rush , Strawberry kiwi and Mandarina (1996). In January 1997, Gatorade launched a new subline called Gatorade Frost on the market in order to increase the attractiveness of the brand beyond the traditional level. Competitive sports team. At that time, the first three flavors of the Frost line were introduced: Alpine Snow , Glacier Freeze and Whitewater Splash . Targeted what the company called "active thirst" - a market ten times the size of the sports drinks segment - Gatorade Frost proved successful, far exceeding the company's original expectations. Flavors in the Frost line were the first from Gatorade to detract from fruit names; It has been described as being made up of "light tasting fruit flavor mixes".

Gatorade unveiled the Gatorade Energy Bar . This bar was Gatorade's first foray into solid foods and was introduced to compete with PowerBar and Clif Bar. In addition to carbohydrates, Gatorade Energy Bars contained a large amount of protein. The bar consisted mainly of puffed grains and corn syrup, common ingredients in other energy bars. In 2001, Gatorade introduced the Gatorade Performance Series , a special line of sports nutrition products. These products include Gatorade Carbohydrate Energy Drink , Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake , Gatorade Nutrition Shake and Gatorade Nutrition Bar . The one introduced in 2004 Endurance formula Contained twice as much sodium and three times as much potassium as the typical Gatorade formula, plus chloride, magnesium and calcium to better replace what athletes lose during training and competition.

This aroma was named in 2002 Gatorade Ice introduced and 2006 as Gatorade Rain and in 2009 as No excuses renamed.

Introduced in 2002, Gatorade ice cream was marketed as a lighter flavored Gatorade and came in strawberry, lime, orange and watermelon flavors. All of these flavors were colorless and transparent. Ice was launched in 2006 as a Renamed Gatorade Rain and the choice of flavors changed. In late 2007, a low-calorie line of Gatorade beverages was named G2 released. G2 was intended for off-field athletes and the yoga crowd. As of 2015, G2 was produced in eight flavors: orange , Fruit punch , grape , Lemon-lime , tropical mix , Blueberry pomegranate , Raspberry melon and Glacier Freeze . SymphonyIRI Group named G2 "Best New Food Product of 2008" and found the product had retail sales of $ 159.1 million in its first full year of production.

Gatorade Tiger was a Gatorade Thirst Quencher sports drink that was created as a result of a sponsorship agreement with Tiger Woods. Gatorade Tiger debuted in March 2008 and was in the colors Red Drive (Cherry), Cool fusion (Lemon-lime) and Quiet Storm (Grape) available. Gatorade Tiger contained 25% more electrolytes than Gatorade Thirst Quencher. As part of the 2009 rebranding, Gatorade Tiger was named Renamed Focus . It has been reformulated by adding the amino acid theanine, which is naturally found in many forms of tea, which has improved mental focus. The focus contained approximately 25 mg per 8 fluid ounce (240 ml) serving or 50 mg per 16.9 fluid ounce (500 ml) bottle. On November 25, 2009, Beverage Digest reported and later confirmed by PepsiCo that a few months before November 2009 they had decided to discontinue some products to make room for the Prime and Recover products - upcoming G-Series re-branding. In 2015 the Gatorade Energy gummies celebrated their debut together with the Gatorade energy bars.

Rebranding

The G series introduced in 2010 from left to right:
Prime 01 (Fuel before the game)
Run 02: Gatorade Thirst Quencher (Original Gatorade) through
Run 02: G2 low calorie
Recover 03 (Protein after the game)

In 2010 Gatorade renamed a number of its products. The original Gatorade was originally called Renamed Gatorade G. . Gatorade Rain was named Renamed No Excuses . Gatorade AM was Renamed Shine On ; Gatorade X-Factor was named Be tough and Gatorade Fierce as Bring It renamed . These names were short-lived, however, as a 2% drop in market share in 2009 resulted in a broader repositioning of the entire line in 2010. As of February 2010, the Gatorade product portfolio has been positioned around what the company is referring to as G series the types of their products are divided into three main segments: before, during and after sporting events.

  • The Prime 01- Product line consists of a pre-game fuel in gel consistency, which is positioned for consumption before sports activities.
  • Traditional Gatorade products like Gatorade Thirst Quencher (Original Gatorade), G2 and Gatorade Powder will be in the Perform 02- Classification that represents their intention to consume during physical exertion.
  • Recover 03 refers to a post-workout protein and carbohydrate drink formulated with the consistency of a sports drink. The composition of this drink reflects its intention to provide both moisture and muscle recovery after a workout.

G Series Pro , a brand extension originally developed for professional athletes, was sold in GNC and Dick's Sporting Goods stores in the United States in 2010 after initially only being available in professional locker rooms and specialized training facilities. Also in 2010, Gatorade introduced the G Natural Gatorade line made with "natural flavors and ingredients", specially sweetened with stevia, and sold in Whole Foods grocery stores in the United States. G Natural was released in two flavors: G Orange Citrus and G2 Berry. The G-Series began replacing earlier iterations of Gatorade product lines in the US (the brand's highest-volume market) in 2010 and in Canada in 2011. While Gatorade products have historically been designed for athletes attending competitive sporting events, a separate line of products has been developed. This line of products was formulated for consumption before, during and after the introduction of personal fitness exercise in the US in 2011. She bears the name G series FIT and consists of fruit and nut bites before training and lightly flavored electrolyte replacement drinks as protein recovery smoothies after training.

In March 2021, Gatorage released the Gx Sweat Patch, which measures your sweat and hydration. It is the company's first wearable product.

Composition and health concerns

The original Gatorade is based on oral rehydration therapy, a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, with the citrus-based flavor and added food coloring. The composition of each Gatorade product depends on the product and the country in which it is sold. Gatorade Thirst Quencher contains water, sucrose (table sugar), dextrose, citric acid, natural flavor, sodium chloride (table salt), sodium citrate, monopotassium phosphate and flavor / color ingredients. Some Gatorade flavors contained brominated vegetable oil as a stabilizer. Brominated vegetable oil was discontinued in 2013 and replaced with sucrose acetate isobutyrate. An 8 ml serving of Gatorade Perform 02 (Gatorade Thirst Quencher) contains 50 calories, 14 grams of carbohydrates, 110 mg of sodium and 30 mg of potassium.

Gatorade thirst quencher is sweetened with a sucrose - dextrose mix. During a period in the 1990s and early 2000s, high fructose corn syrup was used to sweeten the gatorade sold in North America. As of 2011, however, the drink was again sweetened with a sucrose-dextrose combination, which the company considers "preferred by consumers". G2 and G2 Natural, which are labeled as "low-calorie" variants, are partially sweetened with PureVia, an extract from the stevia plant.

The presence of calories, sugar, and sodium in Gatorade products has drawn the attention of school public constituents who have raised the question of whether Gatorade drinks should be allowed for sale in such schools. In 2010, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger sponsored a bill (SB 1295) that proposed a ban on the sale of sports drinks in California schools. In 2015, the University of California, San Francisco began to stop selling sodas, sports drinks, and energy drinks in its cafeterias, vending machines, and on campus catering and retail, and began "selling only calorie or non-calorie beverages" -sweetened beverages with nutritional value like milk and 100% juice ".

A 20-ounce bottle of regular Gatorade contains 34 grams of sugar (8 teaspoons). The USDA recommended maximum daily added sugars per person is about 50 grams, and according to the American Heart Association, the maximum recommended amount of sugar for women is about 6 teaspoons and about 9 teaspoons for men. According to Family Education, according to the AHA, children should consume even less sugar, no more than just 3 to 4 teaspoons a day.

In 2012, a study of nearly 11,000 teenagers reported that "teenagers gained even more weight when they drank a bottle of sports drink every day, an average of 3.5 pounds for each sports drink consumed per day." The researchers concluded, 'We need to educate parents and doctors about what a sugary drink is ... Sports drinks are advertised as a healthy drink by professional athletes, but they really don't need to be used by children unless they are constantly exercising for long periods of time or they are in hot climates. "

The USDA states the average American will consume 160 pounds of sugar each year; almost half a pound of sugar a day. One of the most common ways sugar is consumed is with beverages. Most people don't realize how much sugar a particular drink can have.

In January 2013, the Gatorade maker (PepsiCo) agreed to remove brominated vegetable oil from its Gatorade products in the United States for health reasons. The composition of Gatorade in Europe, Japan and India remains unaffected, as BVO was banned there 23 years earlier.

Research and Development

The inventors of Gatorade developed new sports drinks. The owners of Gatorade sued to acquire rights to these new products but never made them publicly available. First, Shires and Cade developed Go !, a drink that, unlike Gatorade, contained protein to stimulate muscle regeneration. Stokley-Van Camp "paid a fee to have the exclusive rights for a period of time, but they never developed them".

In 1989, Dr. Cade a new sports drink that he claimed was more effective than Gatorade. The new product was called TQ2, short for Thirst Quencher 2. The patent application was as follows:

"The invention described herein is a novel fluid composition which surprisingly and advantageously maintains blood volume at levels well above those observed in the absence of fluid or even with Gatorade."

In an experiment with cyclists, Cade found that TQ2 allowed athletes to endure 30% longer than Gatorade.

Cade introduced the TQ2 product to Pepsi and other beverage manufacturers. Meanwhile, Gatorades sued owner Quaker Cade. After years of legal proceedings, Cade was forced to sell TQ2 to Quaker in 1993. Quaker "wrapped up" TQ2 and never released it to the public. Gatorade claimed that his research showed that TQ2 was not an improvement over the original Gatorade formula. Cade, however, continued to stand by his product. He accused Quaker and Gatorade of stifling the publication of the research behind TQ2.

The Gatorade Sports Science Institute (GSSI), a research facility in Barrington, Illinois, was featured in a number of the company's commercials. This organization was founded in 1985 and is made up of scientists who study the correlation and effects of exercise, environmental variables, and diet on the human body. According to Darren Rovell, "GSSI was created at a time when there was a lot of scientific controversy because there wasn't much public evidence that Gatorade actually worked ... GSSI was also created to be part of Gatorade's powerful marketing arm."

They regularly conduct tests and investigations into how hydration and diet affect athletic performance. Professional athletes such as Eli Manning as well as college and amateur athletes were involved in the GSSI fitness test programs, some of which have led to innovations in new Gatorade formula variants and product lines.

In 2001, the GSSI found that professional racing drivers did not maintain adequate hydration during races, due to the nature of drivers who survived several hours of racing in high temperatures. As a result, a product called the Gatorade In-Car Drinking System was developed and has since been implemented in the vehicles of many professional racing drivers.

In addition to the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Gatorade supports external health and fitness research. In 1992, Gatorade paid the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) $ 250,000. A year later, Gatorade and the American College of Sports Medicine held a round table meeting on "Exercise and Fluid Replacement." The ACSM published the results of the meeting in 1996 and advised athletes to "drink at a rate sufficient to replace all of the water lost through sweating" or "the maximum tolerable amount". Gatorade continues to sponsor the American College of Sports Medicine, although the exact amount it pays is not public.

Advertising and publicity

Early Gatorade advertisements claimed the drink moved through the body 12 times faster than water. Research has shown that it doesn't - Gatorade moves through your body at the same speed as water. Gatorade removed the claim from its advertisements. Gatorade ads have claimed that athletes must "consume at least 40 ounces an hour or your performance could suffer". The South African exercise physiologist Dr. Tim Noakes noted that Cynthia Lucero died of exercise-induced hyponatremic encephalopathy in which Gatorade was consumed "at the advertised rate."

Gatorade is the official sports drink of the NFL, MLB, NBA, WNBA, U.S. basketball, the NHL, the Association of Volleyball Professionals, the Indian Super League, high school sports teams, NASCAR, and other professional and collegiate sports organizations that support the Drinks deliver to sponsored teams in some cases. Distribution was expanded to the UK in 2008, which coincided with an agreement to place Gatorade as the official sports drink of Chelsea FC Gatorade's 1991 "Be Like Mike" ads starring Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls, a North American basketball team that is just getting their title had won, was designated the National Basketball Association's first championship at that time. The ads aired in August 1991 and "Be Like Mike" became a household name in the US. In 2015, new versions of the brand's 50th anniversary ads were created. In recent years, the Gatorade brand has continued to use professional athletes to promote their products. Key supporters in the 2000s included Major League Baseball player Derek Jeter of the New York Yankees, National Hockey League player Sidney Crosby of the Pittsburgh Penguins, National Basketball Association player Dwyane Wade of the Miami Heat and the Chicago Bulls, PGA Tour golfer Tiger Woods, and National Football League quarterback Peyton Manning of the Indianapolis Colts and Denver Broncos. In April 2014 it was announced that Gatorade would become the official supplier to Formula 1 team Sahara Force India.

Gatorade also hosts a variety of awards for high school athletes who excel in their respective sports. An outstanding award is the Gatorade national soccer player of the year.

The Gatorade shower

Gatorade has received significant media attention and reference in popular culture situations, most of which relate to team or individual sports. The most notable and enduring presence of Gatorade in popular culture is the Gatorade shower, originally called the "Gatorade Dunk," where players on a winning team pick up the Gatorade cooler, sneak behind the head coach, and pour the contents of the cooler (usually Gatorade and ice) over your head at the end of an American football game. This tradition became popular in the mid-1980s when Harry Carson and Jim Burt of the New York Giants doused head coach Bill Parcells during the 1985 season. Burt's teammates took this workout and made it popular during the 1986/87 championship season. The tradition has since been a recurring tradition in other team sports, including Canadian football. The name is often used even when replacing non-Gatorade beverages such as water or powerade.

Gatorade and oral rehydration

After the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, aid agencies fought to save the lives of thousands of Rwandan refugees who died of dehydration from cholera in camps in eastern Zaire. The aid organization AmeriCares has been heavily criticized for offering Gatorade as an oral rehydration solution. The New York Times declared:

While Gatorade is good for athletes, it's not good for cholera, said Dr. Michael Toole, epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control. Gatorade doesn't have all of the essential ingredients that an infusion contains, and people who have been given it may have found more appropriate solutions, said Dr. Toole.

The AmeriCares president replied: "We stand by our decision to send Gatorade to Rwandan refugees. In the absence of drinking water, Gatorade has saved countless lives in a real triage situation with its electrolytes and water."

Two studies have shown that Gatorade is at least as effective at treating dehydration as oral rehydration therapies for adults or Pedialyte for children between the ages of 5 and 12. However, in both studies, potassium deficiency (hypokalaemia) was more common in patients receiving Gatorade.

See also

  • Powerade is Gatorade's main competitor.

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gatorade.