Who wrote India's national anthem

Jana Gana Mana - Jana Gana Mana

German: "You are the ruler of the thoughts of all people"

National Anthem of India 
text Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
music Rabindranath Tagore, 1911
Accepted January 24, 1950
Audio sample
"National Anthem" (instrumental)

Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by Polymath Rabindranath Tagore. The first verse of the song Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata was adopted as the national anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24, 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately 52 seconds. Occasionally, a shortened version is also staged, consisting of the first and last lines (and which takes about 20 seconds to play). It was first sung in public on December 27, 1911 at the session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta (now Kolkata).

history

The poem was first publicly recited on the second day of the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on December 27, 1911. Then in January 1912 it was followed at the annual event of the Adi Brahmo Samaj however it was up to the readers of the Adi Brahmo Samaj Journals Tattwabodhini Patrika largely unknown. The poem was published in January 1912 under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata published in Tatwabodhini Patrika, the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj with Tagore, the editor at the time.

In 1912 the song was performed by Sarala Devi Chaudhurani, Tagore's niece, along with the group of students in front of prominent members of Congress such as Bishan Narayan Dhar, President of the Indian National Congress, and Ambika Charan Majumdar.

Outside Calcutta, the song was first sung by the bard himself at a session at Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, on February 28, 1919, when Tagore was attending college and sang the song. The song thrilled the college students, while Margaret Cousins, then deputy director of the college (also an expert on European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), asked Tagore to create an English translation of the song and determine the notation for the national anthem, the only follows if the song is sung in the original slow rendition style. Tagore translated the paper into English on February 28, 1919 at college, entitled The Morning Song of India - via Wikisource. The college adopted Tagore's translation of the song as their prayer song, which is sung to this day.

Jana Gana Mana played the national anthem in Hamburg on September 11, 1942

The song was selected as the national anthem by Subhas Chandra Bose in Germany. On the occasion of the founding meeting of the Indo-German Society on September 11, 1942 in the Hotel Atlantic in Hamburg, Jana Gana Mana was played for the first time by the Hamburg Radio Symphony Orchestra as the national anthem of an independent India.

Before it officially became the national anthem of India in 1950, "Jana Gana Mana" was in the film Hamrahi from 1945 to Listen . It was also adopted as the school song of the Doon School in Dehradun in 1935.

On the occasion of India's gaining freedom, the Indian Constituent Assembly met for the first time as a sovereign body on August 14, 1947, midnight, and the session ended with a unanimous performance by Jana Gana Mana.

The Indian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, held in New York in 1947, recorded Jana Gana Mana as the country's national anthem. The song was played by the house orchestra in front of a gathering of representatives from all over the world.

Code of Conduct

The national anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been given from time to time as to the correct versions of the hymn, the occasions on which it should be played or sung, and the need to respect the hymn with proper propriety on such occasions. The contents of these instructions have been incorporated into the Government of India fact sheet for general information and guidance. The approximate duration of the full version of National Anthem of India is 52 seconds and 20 seconds for a shorter version.

text

The poem was written in a literary register of the Bengali language called sadhu bhasa, which is heavily Sanskriti.

Full version

Original composition in Bengali

Bengali script Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব জাগে জাগে, তব শুভ আশিষ,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় জয়॥

Jana-gana-mana-adhināẏaka jaẏa hē Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā!
Pañjāba Sindhu Gujarāṭa maratha Dravida Utkala Banga
Vindhya Himāchala Yamunā Gangā ucchala-jaladhi-Taranga
Tava Subha Name Jage, Tava Subha Asisa Mage,
gāhē Tava Jaya-gāthā.
Jana-gana-maṅgala-dāẏaka jaẏa hē Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā!
Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, Jaẏa hē, jaẏa yesẏa yesẏa yesẏa hē.

Phonetic transcription of the Bengali version

IPA

[dʒɔno ɡɔno mɔno od̪ʱinae̯ɔko dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[bʱarot̪o bʱaɡːo Bidata ǁ]
[pandʒabo ʃind̪ʱu ɡudʒraʈo maraʈʰa |]
[d̪rabiɽo ut̪kɔlo bɔŋɡo ‖]
[Bindo ɦimatʃɔlo dʒomuna ɡɔŋɡa |]
[utʃʰːɔlo dʒɔlod̪ʱitorɔŋɡo ‖]
[t̪ɔbo ʃubʱo name dʒaɡe | t̪ɔbo ʃubʱo aʃiʃo maɡe]
[gaɦe t̪ɔbo dʒɔe̯o ɡãt̪ʰa ‖]
[dʒɔno ɡɔno moŋɡɔlo d̪ae̯ɔko dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[bʱarot̪o bʱaɡːo bid̪ʱat̪a ‖]
[dʒɔe̯o ɦe | dʒɔe̯o ɦe | dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o ɦe ‖]

Official texts in Hindi

Devanagari script Devanagari transliteration Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे, भारत भाग्य विधाता!
पंजाब-सिंधु-गुजरात-मराठा, द्राविड़-उत्कल-बङ्ग
विंध्य हिमाचल गंगा, उच्छल जलधि
तरंग तव शुभ जागे, तव शुभ आशिष मांगे
गाहे तव जय जय।
जन-गण-मंगलदायक जय हे, भारत भाग्य विधाता!
जय हे! जय हे! जय हे! जय जय जय जय हे!

Jana-gana-mana-Adhin a yaka jaya er bh a rata-bh a gya-vidh a t a
Panj a ba Sindhu Gujar a ta-mar a th a Dr a vida-utkala-banga
Vindhya-Him a chala-yamun a -gear a uchchala-jaladhi-taranga
Tava Subha n a m e j a G e , tava subha a sisa m a G e ,
G a H e tava jaya-g a th a .
Jana-gana-mangala-d a yaka jaya h e Bra a rata-bh a gya-vidh a t a .
Jaya h e , Jaya h e , Jaya h e , jaya jaya jaya jaya h e .

Jana-gaṇa-mana adhināyaka jaya hē Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā.
Paṁjāba-Sindhu-Gujarāta-maratha, Drāviṛa-Utkala Baṁga
Viṁdhya Himācala Yamunā GAMGA, ucchala jaladhi taraṁga
Tava Subha NaMe Jage, tava Subha ASISA māṁgē
gāhē taba jaya gāthā.
Jana gaṇa maṁgala-dāyaka jaya hē, Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā.
Jaya hē, Jaya hē, Jaya hē, jaya jaya jaya jaya hē.

Phonetic spelling

IPA

[dʒənə gəɳə mənə əd̪ʱinɑːjəkə dʒəjə ɦɛː]
[bhɑːɾat̪a bʱɑːgjə ʋɪdʱɑːt̪ɑː ǁ]
[pədʒɑːbə sɪnd̪ʱʊ gʊdʒəɾɑːt̪ə məɾɑːʈʰɑː |]
[d̪ɾɑːʋɪɽə ʊt̪kələ bəgə]
[ʋɪd̪ʱjə ɦɪmɑːtʃələ jəmʊnɑː gəgɑː |]
[ʊtʃʰːələ dʒələd̪ʱi t̪əɾəgə]
[t̪əbə ʃʊbʱə nɑːmeː dʒɑːgeː | t̪əbə ʃʊbʱə ɑːʃɪʂə mɑːgeː]
[gɑːɦeː t̪əbə dʒəjə gɑːt̪ʰɑː ‖]
[dʒənə gəɳə məgələ d̪ɑːjəkə dʒəjə ɦɛː |]
[bʱɑːɾət̪ə bʱɑːgjə ʋɪd̪ʱɑːt̪ɑː ‖]
[dʒəjə ɦɛː | dʒəjə ɦɛː | dʒəjə ɦɛː |]
[dʒəjə dʒəjə dʒəjə dʒəjə ɦɛː ‖] <

The raga used in the hymn

The Indian national anthem Jana Gana Mana is sung in the Raga Alhaiya Bilawal. In the national anthem the Tivra Madhyama Svara used. Some argue that the raag is used in national anthem in raag considering bilawal and it is a raag composed of shuddh swar; presents this anomaly. This train of thought presents the composition of the national anthem in Raga Gaud Sarang, which the Tivra Madhyama Svara used . However, one must also note that it is quite common to use Vivadi Swara for compositions in a raag. Alhaiya Bilawal will be with Tivra Sung Madhyama and often referred to as Raag Bilawal.

short version

On certain occasions, an abbreviated version consisting of the first and last lines of the national anthem is also played. It goes like this

Devanagari script Official Romanization
(Bold indicates long vowels)
Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत भाग्य विधाता।
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय जय।

Jana-gana-mana-adhin a yaka jaya h e
Bra a rata-bh a gya vidh a t a .
Jaya h e , Jaya h e , Jaya h e ,
Jaya jaya jaya jaya h e .

Jana-gana-mana adhināyaka jaya hē
Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā.
Jaya hē, Jaya hē, Jaya hē, jaya jaya jaya jaya hē.

translation

Translation by Tagore dated February 28, 1919 at Besant Theosophical College.

You are the ruler of all people's thoughts
Donor of the Fate of India.
Your name wakes the hearts of Punjab, Sindhu,
Gujarat and Maratha,
by Dravida and Odisha
and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of Vindhya and im
Himalayas
against, mixes with the music of Ganga and Yamuna
and is from
sung to the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for your blessings and sing your praises.
The salvation of all people is waiting in your hand,
you giver of the fate of India.
Victory, victory, victory for you.

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Controversy

In Kerala, students of Jehovah's Witnesses religious denomination were expelled by school authorities for refusing to sing the national anthem on religious grounds, even though they stood up when the anthem was sung. The Kerala Supreme Court concluded that there was nothing in it that could harm a person's religious vulnerabilities and upheld their expulsion. On August 11, 1986, the Supreme Court overturned the High Court and ruled that the High Court had misguided itself because the question is not whether a particular religious belief or practice appeals to our reason or feeling, but whether the belief is real and conscientiously held as part of the profession or practice of any religion. "Our personal views and reactions are irrelevant." The Supreme Court upheld the principle that it is not for a secular judge to judge the correctness of a religious belief.

The Supreme Court ruled that:

"There is no legal requirement to sing the national anthem, nor is it disrespectful to the national anthem if a person who stands up respectfully while singing the national anthem does not join the chant. The national anthem is given reasonable respect when You stand up when the national anthem is sung. It is incorrect to say that disrespect is shown by not singing along. If you respectfully stand up when the national anthem is sung but do not sing yourself clearly, that does not prevent that either Singing the national anthem or interfering with a gathering engaged in such chanting to represent the offense specified in Section 3 of the Prevention of Insults Act of the National Law of Honor. "

Some states require that the anthem be played before films played in theaters. On November 30, 2016, the Supreme Court ordered that all cinemas across the country must play the national anthem before all films, accompanied by an image of the Indian flag, to convey “committed patriotism and nationalism”. Patrons were expected to stand in relation to the hymn and the doors to a movie theater were expected to be locked during the hymn to minimize disruption. The arrangement was controversial as it was argued that patrons who chose not to participate would be specifically selected and singled out, as was the case with an incident published in 2015 that allegedly showed a group of patrons (allegedly from the YouTube uploader referred to as Muslims)) being harassed by others. On February 10, 2017, two Kashmiris (who also included a state government employee) were arrested under the National Honor Prevention Act for failing to confess during the anthem in a government theater. Other incidents of violent outbreaks related to the policy have also been reported.

A cinema club in Kerala (whose film festival was required to comply with the order, resulting in multiple arrests) criticized the order as violating its fundamental rights, arguing that the cinemas were "uniquely unsuitable for the severity and sobriety that must accompany the game" National anthem, "and that the films shown would often" contradict feelings of national respect. "In October 2017, Justice Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud questioned the Order's intentions, arguing that citizens" needn't wear patriotism on their sleeves. " "and it should not be assumed that those who do not stand for the anthem were no less patriotic than those who did. In January 2018, the order was lifted pending further government discussions.

In October 2019, a video of a Bengaluru couple who were bullied for failing to get up during the national anthem in a movie hall went viral. You were asked "Are you Pakistani?" There was a debate on the subject; Some lawyers recalled Article 21, some cited it as a way to get media attention, and some recommended watching the film after playing the national anthem to avoid problems. But after the debate, the Supreme Court reversed its previous order so that cinemas had to play the national anthem.

Historical meaning

The composition was sung for the first time during a congress of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta on December 27, 1911. It was sung on the second day of the Congress. The incident was reported in the British-Indian press as follows:

"The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him to welcome the emperor." ( Statesman , December 28, 1911)
"The proceedings began with Rabindranath Tagore singing a song that he had composed especially in honor of the emperor." ( English people , December 28, 1911)
"When the negotiations of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday, December 27, 1911, a Bengali song was sung to greet the emperor. A resolution to greet the emperor and empress was also passed unanimously." ( In the , December 29, 1911)

Many historians claim that the newspaper reports quoted above were false. The confusion arose in the British-Indian press when another song, "Badshah Humara", written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung in praise of the monarch on the same occasion. The Indian nationalist press clearly noted this difference in events:

"The Congress party's negotiations began with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of blessings). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung in the king George V. was greeted. " ( Amrita Bazaar Patrika , December 28, 1911)
"The annual session of the Congress began with the singing of a song by the great Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. Then a resolution was passed expressing allegiance to King George V. A song that heartily paid homage to King George became V then sung by a group of boys and girls. "( The Bengalee , December 28, 1911)

Even the report of the December 1911 annual session of the Indian National Congress noted this difference:

"On the first day of the 28th Annual Session of the Congress, the process began after the singing of Vande Mataram. On the second day, the work began after the singing of a patriotic song by Babu Rabindranath Tagore. Messages from well-wishers were read and a resolution was passed, expressing loyalty to King George V. Then the song was sung that was composed to greet King George V and Queen Mary. "

On November 10, 1937, Tagore wrote a letter to Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. This letter in Bengali is in Tagore's biography Rabindrajibani, Volume II, page 339 of Find Prabhatkumar Mukherjee .

"A certain high official in the service of His Majesty, who was also my friend, had asked me to write a congratulatory song to the Emperor. The request simply surprised me. It caused a great sensation in my heart. In response to this great attitude, turmoil, I declared the victory in Jana Gana Mana of the Bhagya Bidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India, who from age to age held the reins of the Indian chariot by rise and fall, by the straight path and the crooked Lord of Destiny, this one Reader of the collective mind of India, this perennial leader, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song Crown Was Exaggerated, he was not lacking in simple common sense. "

Tagore writes again in his letter of March 19, 1939:

"I should only offend myself if I answer those who consider me to be such infinite stupidity that I praise George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the eternal charioteer who leads pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of timeless history Mankind." (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p. 738.)

However, these clarifications to the controversy came only after the death of King George V in 1936. Previously, in 1915, after Tagore received the Nobel Prize, the king had bestowed him chivalry, which he returned in 1919 in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Regional aspects

Another controversy is that only the provinces that were under British rule were mentioned, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravida (South India), Utkal and Bengal. None of the princely states - Kashmir, Rajasthan, Hyderabad, Mysore or the states in northeastern India, which are now integral parts of India - was mentioned. Opponents of this proposal, however, claim that Tagore only mentioned the border states of India in order to include all of India. Whether the princely states would be part of an independent Indian republic was controversial until India became independent.

In 2005 there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and replace it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer part of India as it had become part of Pakistan as a result of the 1947 partition. Opponents of this proposal argue that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and Sindhi culture and that Sindhi people are an integral part of the Indian cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India refused to change the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.

On December 17, 2013, Phani Bhushan Choudhury, MLA of Assam, cited an article from the Times of India, which was published on January 26, 1950 and states that the word "Kamarup" was originally included in the song but was later changed to "Sindhu" claiming Kamarup should be reinstated. The minister at the time, Rockybul Hussain, replied that the state government would take steps in this regard after a response from the newspaper. The debate was further accompanied by then Minister Ardhendu Dey, who mentioned "Sanchayita" (edited by Tagore himself) etc. where he said that Kamrup was not mentioned.

In 2017, the state government of Jharkhand under the Bharatiya Janata Party proposed that singing the national anthem in madrasas be made compulsory. This was rejected by a group of Muslim clergy on the grounds that it violated the basic principles of Islamic learning centers.

See also

References

Remarks

External links