What is the definition of brain plasticity



[engl. plasticity; gr. πλαστική (plastic) the formed], (general) malleability, which leads to permanent changes, generally to elasticity, belongs to the ability of organisms to adapt to the environment in development and under new concrete conditions.

[BIO], Neuroplasticity (= NP.) neuroplasticity], under NP. (also neural plasticity or Brain plasticity) one understands the experience-related (experience) change of the brain, the activity-dependent adaptation processes on all levels of the nervous system including synaptic and intracellular processes, neurogenesis (e.g. in the hippocampus), the modification of neural networks (e.g. Hebb's principle ) and cortical regions (cf. cortical plasticity). Trigger conditions for NP. are neurobehavioral requirements in the context of organism-environment interactions, but also changes after cerebral or peripheral damage to the NS (brain damage).

One distinguishes structural and functional NP. With the structural NP. the brain tissue changes so the brain anatomy. These can be increases in the volume, surface and thickness of the cerebral cortex. Anatomical changes in the cable systems (association tracts and commissures) can also occur. Basis of the structural NP. are anatomical changes to the synapses (increase in synapses, enlargement of the synapse surface), neurons (increase in surface), myelination and the formation of dendrites. With the functional NP. changes the neurophysiol. Activation of individual neurons or entire groups of neurons. A distinction is made here between an increase in the neurophysiol. Efficiency (less activity leads to the same or better result) and a change in the coherent network activation. The NP. is seen as the basis of learning and memory.