What is the audiovisual method
The Foreign language teaching serves the controlled mediation of foreign languages under institutional conditions with corresponding external goals and program specifications, a specific didactics and methodology outside of authentic communication with speakers of these languages. Institutional providers are schools, universities and further education institutions.
Areas of competence are speaking and listening comprehension, reading and writing.
The Common European Framework of Reference is authoritative for language tests. The Goethe Institute provides information. The DAAD gives an overview of the tests. An overview of all language exams can be found here.
In the European Union, 13% of all students in lower secondary level learn German in the EU learn German as a foreign language in secondary level I, around 20% in upper secondary level.
If in the following basic types, which are already bundles of methods, are presented, it should be noted that reality was and is strongly characterized by a mix of methods.
The conventional one Grammar translation method goes back to antiquity, its focus is in the 19th century. Even today it is not dead. It is alive and aims at dealing with (classical: Latin, ancient Greek, ancient Hebrew high-cultural) texts, knowledge of vocabulary and the mastery of grammatical paradigms; she neglects speaking and linguistic action. The linguistic basis is the Latin. School grammar and the philological tradition. Translating it into living languages is, of course, a problem.
In 1882 Vietor propagated a radical reversal with the Direct methodwhich dispenses with the first language, too much grammatical systematics, translation and is supposed to convey the foreign language "directly", connected with objects (as far as possible). What is spoken, the conversation takes center stage and the regularities should be opened up and transferred into tacit knowledge.
The Audio-lingual / audio-visual method ties in with it in a variety of ways. It puts ability above knowledge. The method was developed within the framework of American structuralism and behaviorism (Fries 1945, Lado 1964) and enriched with multimedia (visual, language laboratory) in France (CREDIF). The aim is practical language skills, the training of skills, conditioned habits. The learning of patterns takes place as a drill rigidly linked to situations (pattern drill), the patterns are not reflected on for the explicit acquisition of language knowledge. Errors are said to be bad habits be dismantled. The foreign language was consistently used as the language of instruction, the learners should take a bath in it (Submersion). The grammar progression is strictly planned.
In the exercises you will find the specification of sentence patterns, imitations, the use of induction and reinforcement, the system for transfer, substitution exercises and "sentence switchboards". Conversations and communicative patterns should be reproduced. The learning material is also presented audiovisually (photos, films, voice recordings). Translations and grammar reflection, initially also reading and writing, are excluded
The material is verbally shaped statements from everyday constellations. which should connect to the reality of language.
Communicative approaches owe themselves to the communicative change in the 1970s and go back above all to the foreign language didactic specialist Piepho.
The goals are the outcome of learner needs, the promotion of creativity
and the development of communicative action and understanding skills. (The concept of competency was borrowed from the generativists without reflecting on the psychology of language; there syntax is an idealization of the internal knowledge of one native speaker.)
Methods are the activation of the learner through open material and topics relevant to them. The lessons provide for differentiation and individualization. The foreign language is usually the language of instruction. A variety of exercises are planned, such as playing back and replaying conversations, role-playing, working with audiovisual media, and sometimes even transcripts. Everyday communications and usage texts dominate. Regional studies, partly in the sense of interculturality, are included.
Immersion - submersion
These are concepts that have been successful in countries with two official languages, e.g. Canada. In a school with an immersion program, children who speak one of the official languages are taught certain subjects in another language (this can also be a minority language) by a bilingual teacher. With the bilingualism of the teacher there is basically the possibility of dealing with problems directly and in the first language. Your own language retains its reputation, the competence in it is not affected.
On the other hand, in a (usually not so named) Submersion program Teaches students with a minority language, often of lower status, in the majority language, although the teacher usually does not understand their language. Your own first language is therefore under pressure and threatened; it cannot be developed any further.
The difficulties of the newer approaches have often caused a return to traditional grammar or to the grammar-translation method.
In fact, foreign language teaching is strongly determined by the textbooks offered and mostly mixes the methods that are really only used radically in some private language schools. There you will also find eclectic and highly problematic new developments such as suggestopedia and neuro-linguistic programming.
The didactics of "regional studies", which has so far been very selective and of current discussions, is still underdeveloped Culture still far away.
Newer methodological tendencies are:
- the expansion of intercultural approaches: better self-understanding should be ensured through understanding the other, understanding the foreign language is considered to be understanding a foreign culture (Wierlacher, Krusche);
- Reflective learning: inclusion of the learning dimension in the learning process, communication of autonomous learning strategies;
- Functional-communicative grammar approaches that process linguistic knowledge in an action-oriented manner and use authentic conversations as material (as transcript, audio-visual required) and combine with intercultural concepts.
Notorious problem areas for teaching German are:
- the gender of the noun
- the definite article
- the prepositions (meaning, direction)
- the adjunctor (difference as - how)
- the passive
- the modal verbs
- Relativum and relative clause types
- the sentence bracket and the compound verb forms
- the tinting particles
- the inflection of the adjective
- the plural formation and the case inflection of the noun
- the verb inflection (strong / weak verbs, perfect formation)
- the length or shortness of vowels and the reduction vowels
- the consonant combinations at the edge of the syllable
- the orthography (upper / lower case, hyphenated / combined)
- institutional forms of action and types of text
Some of these areas are inadequately conveyed in the textbooks (criteria for the analysis of teaching materials), such as the particles or the passive voice. In addition, certain grammar fields practically do not appear there, especially those from the grammar of spoken German (interjections, ellipses). Ultimately - but this applies to every language - the vocabulary has to be learned in its specific structure.
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