Is Schram a Jewish surname

"Memorial Book for the Karlsruhe Jews"
Selection according to deportation locations

personal data

Simon fish

Surname:fish
First name:Simon
Date of birth:June 14, 1875
Place of birth:Tarnobrzeg (Austria-Hungary, now Poland)
Marital status:married
Parents:David Ichel (? -1906) and Gundel (? -30.4.1918), née Fischmann, F.
Relationship:Husband of Scheindel F .;

Father of Myryan Sara (1907-1907) and David
Address: Rüppurrer Str. 20, 1901 from Tarnow to Karlsruhe
Job: Merchant, buyer and seller
Emigration: 1939 to Belgium (Belgium) Antwerp
Deportation: 11/24/1942 to Malines (Mechelen) (Belgium)
January 15, 1943 to Auschwitz (Poland)
Place of death:Auschwitz (Poland)

biography

Family fish

Simon and Scheindel-Ciwie Fisch with their son David

Simon Fisch, born on June 14, 1875, son of the innkeeper Chaim David Ichel Fisch and Hendel (also Gundel, Hindel) née Fischmann,1 was born in the western Galician town of Tarnobrzeg on the right bank of the Vistula, in the Lemberg district in the Subcarpathian region.

Tarnobrzeg, actually Dzików, was an industrially shaped regional center of Austria-Hungary, with sulfur mines, located on the state railway line Dębica-Rozwadów. The old name Dzików became Tarnobrzeg due to the influence of the local Tarnów family, but it is still used today. Tarnobrzeg-Dzików had 3,517 inhabitants in 1890, 2,840 of them were Jewish. In addition to the strictly Orthodox community, there were different directions: Bundists, religious Zionists (Misrachi) and left-wing Zionists (e.g. Hashomer Hatzair). In the Galician cities of the Danube Monarchy there were numerous newspapers and cultural diversity. In addition to the Jewish-German idiom, the Polish language was relatively widespread there, and High German was sometimes also spoken.

We know of a brother, Reuven (Robert), born October 10, 1877 in Tarnobrzeg, a sister Fejga (Feige), born September 10, 1884 in the same place, and another sister, Perla.2 The name fish can be derived from a metonymic phrase: Jacob blesses his sons Ephraim and Manasseh,3 “They should romp about in the country, as numerous as the fish in the water”. The connection between Ephraim and fish (el) is traditional, very similar to Binjamin and Wolf or Yehuda and Leo. This means that an ancestor Ephraim may have been the godfather for the family name Fisch, when the old patronymic naming was overlaid by fixed family names from the late 18th century.

The Hasidic group, which was dominant in the Fisch family, was led by the Ropshitz-Dzików dynasty, which was considered modest and unpretentious. Its founder was Elieser ben Naftali Tsvi Horowitz (1821-1860), son of the well-known Ropshitzer Rebben, Naftali Tsvi ben Menahem Mendel Horowitz (1760-1827), a follower of Baal Shem Tov.
Elieser's son Meir Horowitz (1819-1877), author of “Imrei Noam”, became the second Dzikówer Rebbe and was also venerated as Tzadik.
His son Joshua Horowitz (probably 1847-1912), author of "Ateret Yehoshua", was the third Rebbe from Tarnobrzeg-Dzików to succeed him. Joshua's brother Jechiel Horowitz (1850-1928) was also a rabbi, in Pokrzywnica and in Tarnów. Jechiel's son Naftali (died 1931) also held the rabbinical office in Tarnów. Raw Joshua's son Alter Yechezkel Eliyahu Horowitz (1879-1943) later served in Tarnów.

It is conceivable that the Fischs followed their Rebben to the city of Tarnów, 90 km away, halfway to Kraków, because Simon and Reuven were born in Tarnobrzeg, but the family must have lived in Tarnów a few years before the turn of the century.

In June 1901, Simon Fisch moved from there to Karlsruhe. The motives for this migration to the west have not been handed down. Under the impression of the early waves of pogroms in Russia and the Ukraine and in view of poverty and food shortages, some young Jews first emigrated to Western Europe in order to get a ship passage from Hamburg, Rotterdam or Antwerp, mostly to (North) America .

In 1904, Simon Fisch had to do some months of Austro-Hungarian military service until he left for health reasons. In the early years in Karlsruhe he apparently lived in a simple sublet situation, because his family did not appear in the address book of 1916 with their own address until 15 years (!) After moving, and registration documents no longer exist.4 In the early years, however, he lived with Scheindel-Ciwie for some time at Steinstrasse 19.5 To earn a living, Simon was a "trader",6 that means - according to the information on his traveling trade license - peddlers in “Ellens, white and haberdashery goods, hats, suspenders, soaps. Means of transport: cardboard. "7
Elliptical goods are fabrics or materials that are sold by the yardstick (about: forearm length); White goods are items made of undyed cotton, such as body or bed linen, curtains or embroidery; Haberdashery goods are, for example, ribbons or cloths for "cleaning" and jewelry.

In September 1906, Simon married Scheindel Ciwie, born Narzisenfeld, in Karlsruhe in a civil registry office. Already married according to a religious rite, they could already feel like a legally married couple for a long time. The woman was born on January 30, 1885 in the Austro-Hungarian Przeworsk in the Subcarpathian region.8 (The spelling varies, it also means: Scheindla Cywie or Narcisenfeld, Narciszenfeld, Narzissenfeld). The first name Ciwie (Zivia) goes back to 2. Book of Kings 12.2.

The civil marriage in Germany at that time certainly meant civil rights for the children as well and to a certain extent adjustment to the majority society. Orthodox and conservative Jews marry through the ketubah, a written contract between the spouses; In a festive ritual, the bride and groom then step under the chuppah, the wedding canopy, which is set up in the open air. A rabbi often presides over the ceremony.

The young wife's parents were Abraham Englard and Necha nee Narciszenfeld. Therefore, Scheindel Ciwie is also referred to as a born Englard in her husband's application for naturalization,9 just like her sister Sima married Mahler, who lives in the same house at Rüppurrer Strasse 20. This was apparently due to the fact that the marital status of their parents was judged differently - married according to Jewish law, but not civilly.

It is quite possible that the family of origin of the two sisters Scheindel and Sime had contact with the Fisch family earlier. In Tarnów we find in 1936 in a directory of Polish post office bank accounts 1936 in the New York Institute for Jewish Research: "Fisch, Majer, Sklad towarów korzennych (" Spices "?), Lwowska 15" and "Narcizenfeld, Jakób, Waska 9",10 maybe relatives who stayed there.

In 1906 Simon's father Chaim David Ichel Fisch died in Tarnów. It will not have been long after that the widow, Hendel (Gundel) née Fischmann, moved to Karlsruhe.

On August 4, 1907, Mirjam Sara was born, to our knowledge the firstborn. The four-month-old child died on December 14, 1907 and was buried on the 16th in the New Cemetery on Haid-und-Neu-Strasse.11

David Ichel (Jechiel) was born on January 6, 1909; traditionally he carried his grandfather's first name.12

Simon Fisch's mother lived for a few years in the household of his daughter-in-law at Rüppurrer Strasse 20; she died on April 15, 1918 in Karlsruhe at the age of 75. Like her little granddaughter, she was buried in the regular part of the New Cemetery on Haid-und-Neu-Strasse.13 This suggests that the family apparently did not legally join the leaving congregation, even if they came from an Orthodox background.

It was certainly important to have a minyan that could be reached on foot, because people pray in the morning and in the afternoon, and driving is not allowed on Shabbat. For this purpose there was the private prayer and study room of the Tarnów-born dealer Naftali Bogen across the street at Wielandtstrasse 10. In 1915 he was married to Simon's sister Feige. The couple had a son, Chaim Ichel, who was born in Tarnow in 1906. (There is a separate biography of the Bogen family in the memorial book.)

In 1919, Simon Fisch submitted an application for naturalization for himself and his family, which was approved in the same year. It shows that his economic situation was modest but stable. On December 15, 1919, Simon Fisch, his wife and son, were citizens of Baden and thus German.14

From the end of 1915 to autumn 1938 the family was given the address Rüppurrer Straße 20, H. II (i.e. courtyard building, 2nd floor, i.e. 1st floor). According to the 1922 address book, the following neighboring families lived in the block of houses No. 20: Max Gewürz, Baruch Hackel, Isaak Herzig, Mayer Weiss and last but not least: Sender Mahler, his brother-in-law with his wife Sima, Scheindel's sister.

The now only child David Ichel grew up in Karlsruhe, details from his youth are not documented. Only the 21-year-old appears again in the files:

On April 29, 1939, the police authority in Berlin gave the Ministry of Justice in Brussels (Public Security Department) the information that the clerk - that is, an employee of a trading company - David Fisch was registered in Berlin from August 1, 1930 to January 1, 1939 .15 Little can be said about the reasons why he went to Berlin in 1930. Perhaps there were relatives there or a bride; however, they never got married.

In December 1933, the new Nazi government had already bad consequences for the Fisch family. In Karlsruhe, the naturalization was revoked, the parents and David were stateless since then. The father's traveling trade license was also withdrawn.16

We don't know much about David's living conditions in Berlin. Most recently he lived in the district N 58, Weißenburger Straße 28,18 as can be seen from the information provided by the Berlin Police Department to Brussels in April 1939. In the same house in the Berlin address book, among others, are mentioned: W. Altmann, Arbeiter; A. Lewandowski, chocolate wholesaler; P. Goldmann, businessman; W. Schlesinger, pension recipient. The house belonged to a merchant W. Hammel.19 David does not appear in the address book, he may have been sublet. The street, located in the middle of today's trendy Prenzlauer Berg district, is now called Kollwitzstraße, because Käthe Kollwitz lived in No. 25 during David Fisch's time.

The harassment against the Jewish citizens escalated from 1933 and culminated in the November pogroms in 1938. In the days that followed, Jewish men from the Berlin area were brought to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp and pressured to leave the country. David Fisch was able to evade this, he was not among those arrested.

The unmarried David, who was just 30 years old, fled Berlin on December 15, 1938 and stayed in Cologne for a short time20 and registered on January 5, 1939 in Antwerp as a political refugee from Germany, as he stated in a questionnaire in Antwerp on July 26, 1939. He founded “J'ai été persécuté et recherché par la Gestapo. J'ai dû m'enfuir pour éviter le camp de concentration ”. He stated that he wanted to emigrate to the USA; he was in possession of an affidavit (i.e. a guarantee from relatives there) and had sufficient funds for maintenance - this was important because a refugee was initially not given a work permit. In April 1939 his residence was Lange Leemstraat 323 in Antwerp.

David Fisch had entered Belgium without a passport and without a visa, but an extract from the Karlsruhe birth register and a postal ID card (a card for picking up poste restante items) with a photo, issued in Berlin, July 1938, were brought in.21

In the spring of 1939 his parents were still in Karlsruhe. On the “supplementary card for Jewish households” in the census on May 17, 1939, Simon Fisch and Scheindel-Ziwie, née Narzisenfeld, reside at Rüppurrer Strasse 20, but with the comment added later: “Unknown migrated”.22 Sister Feige, married Bogen, also lived - apparently alone - in Karlsruhe, at Brunnenstrasse 3a. Her further fate is still unknown and should be clarified together with that of the Bogen family. -

According to an official regulation, the Jewish men over 60 and the sick - Simon Fisch was 64 at the time - were not deported to their native Poland in October 1938 like the younger ones.23 Those who stayed behind were however subject to harassing surveillance and were required to leave the Reich territory by July 1, 1939 (“residence ban”).

According to a Gestapo list, the Fisch couple moved to Frankfurt (Main) in July 1939,24 probably to Simon's brother Robert Reuven Fisch and his wife Berta nee Guth25. The Karlsruhe address book 1940, as at the end of January 1940, erroneously still lists "Fisch, Sim. Israel, Rüppurrer Str. 20. H.3". This suggests that they previously had to move to the top floor, probably into a smaller, cheaper apartment.

The Fisch couple also arrived in Antwerp on July 20th. According to the Belgian “Jewish Register” of December 13th 1940, the first address was Provinciestraat 245.26

We read about David in a questionnaire dated July 26, 1939 from Antwerp that he was not imprisoned or ill-treated in Germany and that he crossed the Belgian border on foot alone. When asked by relatives of Belgian nationality, he names his cousin Rosa Fuks,^27 Provinciestraat No 161, the eldest daughter of the Mahlers from Rüppurrer Strasse 20. And again: He has money from America for his living and is waiting to leave there. He doesn't mention the parents. The outbreak of war destroys all these plans to emigrate:

On November 30, 1939, David Fisch is still in Antwerp, registered at Walvisstraat 19, and is known as a tie maker.28 This suggests that he must have worked in the textile industry that his father was familiar with in Berlin too.

Two days after the German invasion of Belgium on May 10, 1940, foreign or stateless Jews who had found shelter in Belgium, ie mainly in Antwerp and Brussels, regardless of the applicable asylum law and regardless of the fact that most of they were refugees from the Nazis, arrested as "enemy foreigners" and deported across the border to France. The French authorities transferred these deportees to internment camps until the end of May, especially to the St. Cyprien camp on the Mediterranean coast, near the Spanish border, which had been set up the previous year for Spanish civil war refugees. One of the first laws of the new Vichy government was October 4, 1940, authorizing the prefects to intern without a French passport.

While his parents were apparently spared at first, David Fisch was in Camp de Gurs in southern France from October 29, 1940.29 Due to the poor hygienic conditions, the St. Cyprien camp had been evacuated since the beginning of October 1940 and the prisoners were brought to Gurs. The previous neighbors from Karlsruhe had arrived there a week earlier. The living conditions in this phase were characterized by poor supplies, chaos and the onset of cold.

The following summer, from June 25, 1941, David was a slave laborer in Uriage-les-Bains near Grenoble in a French work company ("Groupe de Travailleurs Etrangers"). It was not until October 1, 1941, that he was "deleted" from the files of the Antwerp Aliens Police (last address Antwerp, Walvisstraat 19) because he had left without giving a new address. This supports the thesis expressed elsewhere that there were also Belgian civil authorities who only reluctantly (sometimes not at all) obeyed German orders.30

In the second half of August 1942, the French police arrested around 5,000 Jews, mostly stateless and foreign, in the unoccupied south of France.31 Perhaps in the course of such a raid, David ended up in the internment camp "Center de Séjour Surveillé de Fort Barraux" in the Isère department in the Rhône-Alpes region on August 25, 1942. This stopover only lasts until August 28th.32 In the days that followed, he and hundreds of others were shipped north via Lyon towards Paris to the Drancy transit camp.

In July 1942 there was also a mass raid of foreign and stateless Jewish people in Paris (“La Grande Rafle du Vel d'Hiv”), which took place under the most terrible circumstances: in the scorching heat, several thousand people waited for days without water in the halls of a cycle track . Many of those held there also came to Drancy. In the period up to mid-November 1942 alone, around 30,000 prisoners were smuggled through the transit camp there and taken by train to the extermination camps in the east.33

The camp in Drancy, northeast of Paris, was mainly an unfinished, four-story block of flats designed for a few hundred, occupied by up to 7,000 people, organized by German occupation authorities and guarded by French teams who also excelled through greed and arbitrary attacks.34 The hygienic conditions in Drancy were miserable: “Going to the toilet at night is forbidden. Only toilet buckets [...] were allowed to be used. The buckets overflow and the excrement spills over the stairs, ”writes an inmate who left Drancy a week after David Fisch.35

David Fisch was deported on September 2, 1942 with Transport No. 27, which comprised 1,000 people. 138 of the passengers were under 18 years of age.36 The deportation list contains David's name as well as the addition “apatride”, stateless. Henrietta and Gertrud Marx, Ferdinand Hanauer and Edith Moos from Karlsruhe also drove on the same train. (This fact can be found in the work of Beate and Serge Klarsfeld. In Le mémorial des enfants juifs déportés de France, they paid tribute to the more than 11,000 affected children. It is thanks to them that many documents from France are accessible today.)

An SD department in Paris reported to the RSHA, Ref. IV B 4 in Berlin, that the train had left Le Bourget-Drancy station at 8:55 am, “food provided as usual per Jew for 14 days”.37
Here the officer is likely to have lied to himself.

From comparable transports on September 4th, 9th and 25th there are descriptions: “[We are] loaded into cattle wagons [...] There is hardly any space to sit down, even when you are crowded together. [...] The nights were the hardest. Everyone wanted to stretch out by force. "38 “The only air supply was small barred openings. There was a little straw on the floor and there were two buckets in one corner. One contained drinking water, the other [...] was intended for natural needs. "39 “Sixty people were crammed into it, men, women, children, the elderly, the sick, infants, and toddlers. [...] We each received a loaf of bread, a piece of sausage and a piece of margarine. "41

It is uncertain whether 33-year-old David was one of them when around 250 young men fit for work were taken from the train in Blechhammer near Cosel (Blachownia Śląska near Kędzierzyn-Koźle) in the Upper Silesian coal region and taken to the local forced labor camps.41

In Auschwitz, about 75 km away, where the train arrived on September 4th, all the others were unloaded at the so-called old ramp at the freight station outside the city, from where they had to walk to Birkenau (old people and mothers with children were sometimes on trucks shipped).42 Only ten of the men were given a number in the subsequent “selection” in order to initially stay alive as a worker. About 30 people from the entire transport survived the war, David was not among them.43

His parents were arrested a few months later in Antwerp, Lange Van Ruusbroecstraat 13, and came to the Dossin barracks in Mechelen / Malines, 25 km south of Antwerp, on November 24, 1942. Simon and Scheindel-Ciwie Fisch were deported on January 15, 1943, in Transport No. XVIII with a total of 945 people to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The fact that the 15th was a Friday, so they were forced to travel into the beginning of Shabbat, was certainly an additional offense for deeply religious people like the Fisch couple.

On January 18, in bitter cold, they arrived at the “Old Rampe” with a total of 1,558 people from transports XVIII and XIX from Belgium and were taken to Auschwitz II (Birkenau). The elderly, the weak and the sick were murdered there immediately, almost 90 percent of the women.44.

According to Polish documents from the post-war period, the death of Simon and Scheindel Fisch was established in Auschwitz in the period up to January 25, 1943.45 Simon's brother Robert, his wife Berta and a five-year-old child named Zwi belonging to their family were also deported from France in 1942 and died in the Shoah.46 Most recently they lived in Antwerp, Lamorinièrestraat, 16; Evidently he fled to the French Savigny sous Faye, then to Poitiers, 20 rue des Gaillards, where Robert Fisch was arrested on October 9th, 1942, brought to Drancy on the 15th and deported from there on November 6th, 1942 to Transport 42.

The YadvaShem archive contains commemorative sheets written by one of Robert and Berta Fisch's five children. This David Fisch lived in Tel Aviv in 1956, Yehoshua Ben Nun Street 48, 1974 in the local district Ramat Aviv, Andersen Street 10. So far no contact has been made with relatives whom we hope to find in Israel or in the USA, for example also the American family who made an affidavit to David Fisch in 1939 ...

(Christoph Kalisch, May 2010)


Remarks:
[1] Also: Gundel, Hindel.
[2] Tarnobrzeg PSA Births 1889-1901, Lwow Wojewodztwa / Rzeszow Province
(records in Fond 921 in Kielce Archive Sandomierz Branch). From: JewishGen Jewish Records Indexing - Poland. Born 10.9.1884, lived in Brunnenstrasse 3a (IST / Arch / Transportlisten Gestapo folder 26, page 19), later on Schützenstrasse. 75 (address book 1940, “Jewish residents”).
[3] Genesis 48:16.
[4] Address book 1916 (status at the end of 1915).
[5] Birth register 1907, daughter Mirjam Sara.
[6] Main State Archives Stuttgart J 386 Bü 311, p. 44f
[7] Wandergewerbeschein Dec. 1932, Stadtarchiv Karlsruhe 6 / BZA 3737.
[8] Przeworsk here several times and also in the IST Gestapo list.
[9] City AK 6 / BZA 3737
[10] In: Spis właścicieli kont czekowych w Pocztowej Kasie Oszczędności / c Pocztowa Kasa Oszczędności [Directory of Polish Post Office Bank Accounts 1936 / YIVO New York].
[11] Ibid.
[12] Wrong in Klarsfeld and in Malines Memorial: 1900.
[13] Main State Archives Stuttgart J 386 Bü 310, p. 86f. On April 17th she was buried in the New Cemetery, like daughter Sara apparently in the regular part (not the exit congregation).
[14] City AK 6 / BZA 3737.
[15] Belgian State Archives, Brussels, holdings: Police des Etrangers, A338.812, notification from Police President Berlin, registration office.
[16] City AK 6 / BZA 3737.
[17] A David Fisch who appeared in the Berlin address book 1933-35 with a textile shop in Flotowstrasse. 7 was born according to the Landesarchiv Berlin A Rep 342-02 No. 34619 on January 20th, 1904 in Neusandez and apparently survived. There is no recognizable connection with David Fisch, son of Simon F. from Karlsruhe.
[18] Belgian State Archives, Brussels, holdings: Police des Etrangers, A338.812, notification from Police President Berlin, registration office.
[19] http://adressbuch.zlb.de/, accumulated from address books of the city of Berlin, 1933-38.
[20] So he stated on July 26, 1939 in a questionnaire in Antwerp (ibid).
[21] Belgian State Archives, Brussels, holdings: Police des Etrangers, A338.812.
[22] Federal Archives R1509, supplementary cards for VZ May 17, 1939.
[23] IS folder 26 / page 55, 66, 72.
[24] Undated, probably Sept. 1939; IS folder 26 / page 95.
[25] Yadvashem commemorative sheets submitted by his son David Fisch, a) Yehoshua bin Nun 48, Tel Aviv, 7/11/1956; b) Rechov Andersen 10, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 1/2/1974.
[26] Register of Jews 13 Dec. 1940, cf Mail L Schram December 2009.
[27] Correct: a cousin.
[28] Belgian State Archives, Brussels, holdings: Police des Etrangers, A338.812.
[29] cf Mail L Schram December 2009.
[30] Belgian State Archives, Brussels, holdings: Police des Etrangers, A338.812, notification from Police President Berlin, registration office.
[31] Serge Klarsfeld (ed.): The final solution to the Jewish question in France. German documents 1941-1944. Paris, 1977, p. 137.
[32] "En août 1942, et notamment du 16 au 27, les Juifs étrangers, arrêtés dans la region, sont internés au Fort Barraux [Isère] avant d'être dirigés vers Lyon, le 28, puis déportés à Auschwitz." (http://www.resistance-en-isere.com/Commun/docs/1/Doc155.pdf).
[33] Michel Lafitte: Case Study: The Drancy Camp. In: Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, http://www.massviolence.org/The-Drancy-Camp?artpage=2#outil_sommaire_2.
[34] Maurice Szmidt: It must be hell here [...]. Constance: Hartung-Gorre, 2007, p. 39ff. And at Klarsfeld, Vichy - Auschwitz. The “final solution to the Jewish question” in France, passim.
[35] Ibid., P. 39.
[36] http://www.holocaust-history.org/klarsfeld/French%20Children/html&graphics/T0392.shtml
[37] letter from SD in Paris to RSHA, Ref. IV B 4 in Berlin, source: http://www.zmo.de/biblio/nachlass/hoepp/02_01_019.pdf.
[38] Ibid, p. 42.
[39] Paul Schaffer: Le soleil voilé. Paris 2002. http://www.schafferpaul.com/livre%20allemand.htm
[40] Herman Idelovici: Script intégral de son témoignage. Http://pagesperso-orange.fr/d-d.natanson/aron.htm#idelovici2, freely translated by C.K.
[41] Serge Klarsfeld: Vichy - Auschwitz. The cooperation of the German and French authorities on the “final solution to the Jewish question” in France. Nördlingen, 1989, p. 450.
[42] Danuta Czech, Calendar of Events in the Auschwitz-Birkenfeld Concentration Camp 1939-1945, p. 294f; Le mémorial de la déportation des Juifs de France, ed. Serge and Beate Klarsfeld, Paris 1978 and Mail L Schram December 2009.
[43] http://www.memoire-juive.org/liste_convois.htm.
[44] Czech, Calendar of Events, p. 386; Mail L Schram December 2009, see transport list, created in Mechelen.
[45] Email, SPF Sécurité Sociale, Service des Victimes de la Guerre, Service Archives et Documentation, Brussels, December 2009.
[46] Mail L Schram, Museum Malines (Belgium), December 2009: Most recently in Antwerp, Lamorinièrestraat, 16; Evidently he fled to the French Savigny sous Faye, then to Poitiers, 20 rue des Gaillards, where Robert Fisch was arrested on October 9th, 1942, brought to Drancy on the 15th and deported from there on November 6th, 1942 to Transport 42.