How do maps show colonization?
Africa - 1914/1918
The fate of Africa was decided on the Congo Conference, for which the statesmen of Europe gathered in Berlin in November 1884 at the invitation of Bismarck, after the distribution conflicts in Africa threatened to escalate. The conference led to the almost complete division of the continent into spheres of interest and the subsequent occupation of the areas. The demarcation was mostly arbitrary and did not take into account ethnic, religious or cultural traditions.
Striving from the strategic objective Great Britain a corridor between the Cape Province and the Mediterranean Sea (Cape Cairo Plan). The English expansion took place from the north and south. Cecil Rhodes first conquered Bechuanaland, then Rhodesia; after the Boer War between 1899 and 1902, the entire area was combined as the South African Union. From the north, Egypt and, after the suppression of the Mahdi uprising, Sudan were occupied. British Somaliland and Aden mainly served to secure the shipping routes to India.
France meanwhile tried to penetrate all of West Africa from Algeria and Senegal. The plan to create greater Sudanese unity failed in 1898 with the Faschoda crisis, in which British and French troops faced each other in what is now Sudan. The imminent danger of war was settled by a compromise in 1899.
Bismarck, a typical cabinet politician of the 19th century, but not an imperialist at all, found it difficult to make up his mind to enter the competition for distant colonies. The areas to which the German Empire finally raised claims - Togo, Cameroon, South West Africa, German East Africa and Zanzibar - were comparatively uninteresting in terms of colonial economies. Sansibar was exchanged for Heligoland in the German-British Heligoland-Sansibar Treaty (1890).
Italy conquered Eritrea in 1887 and Italian Somaliland in 1888. The attempt to annex Ethiopia failed. After the defeat of Adua in 1896, Italy had to recognize its independence. In the Italo-Turkish War of 1911/1912, the Italians conquered the previously Ottoman Libya.
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