What is a summary of philosophy

Philosophy and happiness: summary

The history of philosophy begins with triple happiness, that Plato and Augustine know: first the happiness of the relationship to the superhuman being itself, then the happiness of the personal human education and finally the happiness of the humane coexistence. The latter two are impossible without the first basic luck. Happiness of the human being here includes the human being in all areas of life and meaning, namely in himself, in his relationship to others and in the relationship to his original ground. So happiness is what is made possible for the individual and for others through the relationship to the divine original ground.

By the two-dimensional image of man, which Aristotle drafts and can be found up to Kant, this concept of happiness narrows. Humanity remains an essential area of ​​happiness for a long time, but its exclusive anchoring in the human aspect proves to be insufficient. Despite all efforts to make people better and more capable by various means, trust in their ability to shape a good and amicable community decreases. This fateful development is in turn at the expense of happiness. Neither Luther, nor Descartes, and certainly not Kant, use luck with regard to social interaction. Only satisfaction and the fulfillment of duties are to be expected here, happiness wither more and more to the satisfaction of private needs and instincts.

This individual understanding of happiness is shaped in the one-dimensional image of man continue from. The materialists and empiricists of the modern age even postulate a contrary view of man. Happiness in interpersonal relationships is not only impossible, it is actually contrary to human nature. Community life is therefore only possible through subordination to legal and usefulness norms, no longer through the efficiency and good humanity of as many as possible.

What remains is the happiness of the satisfaction of needs, or the maximum amount of pleasure in a "fun society", in which happiness is no longer allowed to be a comprehensive self-expression of people, but is exhausted in - meanwhile already global - profit striving, in the consumption of goods, amusements and partners .

(Author: Monika Wirthgen)