What's Jain Ramayana?

encyclopedia

Texts on the religion of Jainism

The Tattvārthsūtra is considered to be the most authoritative book on Jainism and the only authoritative text in both the Svetambara and Digambara sects

Jain literature includes Jain Agamas and subsequent comments from various Jain ascetics. Jain literature is mainly divided into Digambara Literature and Śvētāmbara Literature. Jain literature exists mainly in Magadhi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu, and more recently in English.

History

Jain literature was passed down orally and consisted of teachings from Jain leaders such as Mahavira. After Bhadrabahu, the teachings became inconsistent and differences arose between the Jain leaders due to the division of the religious order into Digambara and Śvētāmbara. After large numbers of Jain monks emigrated south with Bhadrabahu, numerous councils were convened to organize the sacred teachings. One of them was organized in Pataliputra. Another was made in the 2nd century BC. Organized in the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri in Kalinga (today in Odisha) during the reign of Kharavela. The council concluded by deciding to write the teachings, marking the origins of written Jain literature.

Early Jain writers included Gunadhara, Dharasena-Pushpadanta, Kundakunda, and Umaswati.

The leaders of Svetambara organized two councils in Mathura and Valabhi in the 4th century AD. They accepted their canon in the Valabhi Council of the 5th century AD under the leadership of Devardhigani.

Canonical [edit]

The Suryaprajnaptisūtra, an astronomical text by Śvētāmbara Jains from the 4th or 3rd century BC. Above: his manuscript from c.1500 CE.[3]
Stela shows Śhrut Jnānaor full knowledge of the scriptures

The canonical texts of Jainism are called Agamas. These should be based on the discourse of Tirthankara, delivered in a Samavasarana (divine sermon hall). These discourses are referred to as Śrutu Jnāna ((Jinvani) and includes eleven Angas and fourteen Purvas. According to the Jains, the canonical literature comes from the first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha. The Digambara Sect believes there were 26 Agam sutras (12 Ang-agams + 14 Ang Bahya Agams). They were gradually lost, however, beginning at one hundred and fifty years after Lord Mahavir nirvana. Hence, they recognize the existing Agam sutras (those of the Śvētāmbara Sects) as their authentic writings.[citation needed]

The Jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal and the teachings their first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha were their writings millions of years ago. Mythology has it that the Tirthankaras called learned in divine preaching dreams Samavasaranaheard by the gods, ascetics and lay people. The held discourse is called Śhrut Jnāna (or heard knowledge) and comprises eleven Angas and fourteen Purvas. The discourse is driven by the. Remembered and passed on Ganadharas (Main disciple) and consists of twelve Angas (Departments). It is symbolically represented by a tree with twelve branches.

According to the Jain tradition is a Araha (worthy) speaks meaning which is then converted into sūtra ((Sutta) from his disciples and from such sūtras emerge the teaching. The creation and distribution of the Agama is the work of the disciples in Jainism. These texts, historical for Jains, have presented the truths that were spoken by them Tirthankaras, especially the Mahāvīra. Twenty-four in each cycle of Jain cosmology Tirthankaras appear and also the Jain scriptures for it era. These are then coded duvala samgagani pidaga (twelve baskets with limbs of disciples), but transmitted orally. In the 980th year after Mahāvīra's death (~ 5th century AD) the texts were first written by the council of Valabhi.

Agama is a Sanskrit word that means the "coming" of a faculty through transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers. It is believed that they were passed down orally through oral transmission from one generation to the next, similar to the ancient Buddhist and Hindu texts. The Jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal and the teachings their first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha were their writings millions of years ago. The religion says that the Tirthankara taught in a divine preaching hall called Samavasaranaheard by the gods, ascetics and lay people.

According to the Jain tradition is a Araha (worthy) speaks meaning which is then converted into sūtra ((Sutta) from his disciples and from such sūtras emerge the teaching. The creation and distribution of the Agama is the work of the disciples in Jainism. These texts, historical for Jains, have presented the truths that were spoken by them Tirthankaras, especially the Mahāvīra. Twenty-four in each cycle of Jain cosmology Tirthankaras appear and also the Jain scriptures for it era. It is believed that the spoken language is written Ardhamagadhi from the Śvētāmbara Jains and a form of sound resonance from the Digambara Jains. These are then coded duvala samgagani pidaga (twelve baskets with limbs of disciples), but transmitted orally. In the 980th year after Mahāvīra's death (~ 5th century AD) the texts were first written by the council of Valabhi. The Śvētāmbaras believe that they have the original Jain scriptures. This is contested by the Digambaras sect, who believe that Āchārya Bhutabali (1st century AD) was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Āchārya Bhutabali wrote together with Āchārya Pushpadanta Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama, a canonical text for Digambaras. The Śvētāmbaras state that their collection of 45 works is an ongoing tradition, although they accept that their collection is also incomplete due to a lost Anga text and four lost Purva texts. According to von Glasenapp, the Digambara texts partly agree with the enumerations and works of older Śvētāmbara texts, but in many cases there are also major differences between the texts of the two great Jain traditions.Āchāryas compiled the oldest known Digambara Jain texts, including the four Anuyoga.

The Śvētāmbara consider their 45-text collection to be canonical. The Digambaras created a secondary canon between AD 600 and AD 900 and grouped it into four groups: history, cosmography, philosophy and ethics. This four-sentence collection is called "four" Vedas“From the Digambaras.[a]

The most popular and influential texts of Jainism were its non-canonical literature. Of these is the Kalpa Sūtras are particularly popular with Śvētāmbaras, who attribute them to Bhadrabahu (approx. 300 BC). This ancient scholar is revered in the Digambara tradition and they believe he led their migration to the ancient region of South Karnataka and created their tradition. Śvētāmbaras disagree and believe that Bhadrabahu moved to Nepal, not the Indian peninsula. However, both traditions take his into account Niryuktis and Samhitas as important texts. The earliest surviving Sanskrit text from Umaswati is called Tattvarthasūtra is regarded as the authoritative text of Jain philosophy by all traditions of Jainism. [21] His text has the same meaning in Jainism as Vedanta Sūtras and Yogasūtras have in Hinduism.

In the Digambara tradition, the texts written by Kundakunda are highly revered and historically influential. Other important Jain texts are: Samayasara, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, and Niyamasara.

Digambara literature [edit]

in the Digambara Tradition, two main texts, three commentaries on main texts and four Anuyogas (Exhibition) consisting of more than 20 texts are followed. These scriptures were written by great people Acharyas (Scholars) from the 5th to the 14th centuries AD using the original Agama sutras as the basis for their work. According to Vijay. K. Jain:

Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic to have some knowledge of the original canon. Some learned later Āchāryas began to restore, assemble, and put into writing the teachings of Lord Mahavira that were the subject of Agamas. Āchārya Dharasen, from 3rd to 7th centuries AD, led two Āchāryas, Āchārya Pushpadant and Āchārya Bhutabali to put these teachings into writing. The two Āchāryas wrote on palm leaves, Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama- among the oldest known Digambara Jaina texts. At the same time Āchārya Gunadhar wrote Kaşāyapāhuda.

The Prathmanuyoga (first exhibition) contains the universal story that Karananuyoga (Calculation exposure) contains work on cosmology and the charananuyoga (Behavioral exposure) contains texts on the correct behavior of monks and Sravakas.

The Shatkhandagama is also known as Maha-kammapayadi-pahuda or Maha Karma Prabhrut. Two Acharyas;; Pushpadanta and Bhutabali wrote it around the 6th century AD[citation needed]. The second Purva agama called Agraya-niya was used as the basis for this text. The text contains six volumes. Acharya Virasena wrote two comment texts known as Dhaval-tika on the first five volumes and Maha-dhaval-tika in the sixth volume of this passage about 780 AD[citation needed]

Acharya Gunadhara wrote that Kasay-pahud on the basis of the fifth Purva agama called Jnana-Pravada. Acharya Virasena and his student Jinasena wrote a comment, known as Jaya-dhavala-tika around 780 AD[32]

Jain texts believed to have been written by Acharya Kundakunda around the 4th century AD are:

Gommatsāra is one of the most important Jain texts by Acharya Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti. It is based on the main text of Jain, Dhavala written by the Acharya Bhutabali and Acharya Pushpadanta. It is also called Pancha Sangraha, a collection of five topics:

  1. That which is bound, i.e. the soul (Bandhaka);
  2. What is bound to the soul;
  3. What binds;
  4. The varieties of bondage;
  5. The cause of bondage.

Non-canonical [edit]

Theological [edit]

Bhadrabahu (c. 300 AD) is considered the last by the Jains Sutra Kevali (One who has memorized all of the scriptures). He wrote various books known as niyuktiwho are comments on these scriptures. He also wrote Samhita, a book on legal cases. Umaswati (ca.1st century AD) wrote Tattvarthadhigama Sutra this briefly describes all of the basic tennets of Jainism. Haribhadra (c 8th century) wrote the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, an important Jain text on yoga that compares the yoga systems of Buddhists, Hindus, and Jains. Siddhasena Divakara (c. 650 AD), a contemporary of Vikramaditya, wrote Nyayavatra a work on pure logic.

Hemachandra (ca.1088-1172 AD) wrote that Yogaśāstra, a textbook on yoga and Adhatma Upanishad. Its minor work Vitragastuti gives outlines of the Jain teaching in the form of hymns. This was later detailed by Mallisena (ca 1292 AD) in his work Syadavadamanjari. Devendrasuri wrote Karmagrantha who discuss the theory of karma in Jainism. Gunaratna (around AD 1400) Commented on Haribhadra's work. Lokaprakasa from Vinayavijaya and Pratimasataka from Yasovijaya were written in c. 17th century AD Lokaprakasa deals with all aspects of Jainism. Pratimasataka deals with metaphysics and logic. Yasovijaya defends the worship of idols in this work. Srivarddhaeva (aka Tumbuluracarya) attributed a Kannada comment Tattvarthadigama Sutra. This work has 96,000 verses.[citation needed]Jainendra vyakarana by Acharya Pujyapada and Sakatayana vyakarana of Sakatayana the works on grammar are written in c. 9th century AD Siddha-Hem-Shabdanushasana ”by Acharya Hemachandra (approx. 12th century AD) Is considered by F. Kielhorn as the best grammar work of the Indian Middle Ages. Hemacandra's book Kumarapalacaritra is also noteworthy.[citation needed]

Narrative literature and poetry [edit]

Jaina narrative literature mainly contains stories about sixty-three prominent figures known as Salakapurusaand people related to them. Some of the most important works are Harivamshapurana from Jinasena (approx. 8th century AD), Vikramarjuna-Vijaya (also known as Pampa-Bharata) by the Kannada poet Adi Pampa (approx. 10th century AD), Pandavapurana by Shubhachandra (ca.16th century AD).

Mathematics [edit]

Jain literature around AD 150 covered several topics in mathematics, including the theory of numbers, arithmetic operations, geometry, operations on fractions, simple equations, cubic equations, bi-quadratic equations, permutations, combinations, and logarithms.

Languages ​​[edit]

Jain's literature exists mainly in Jain Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam,[39]Tulu and more recently in English.[citation needed]

Jains have contributed to India's classical and popular literature. For example, almost all of the early Kannada literature and many Tamil works were written by Jains. Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujarati were written by Jain scholars.[citation needed]

The first autobiography of the Hindi ancestor, Braj Bhasha, is called Ardhakathānaka and was written by a Jain, Banarasidasa, a passionate follower of Acarya Kundakunda who lived in Agra. Many Tamil classics are written by Jains or with Jain beliefs and values ​​as a core topic. Virtually all known texts in the Apabhramsha language are Jain works.[citation needed]

The oldest Jain literature is found in Shauraseni and Jain Prakrit (the Jain Agamas, Agama-Tulya, the Siddhanta texts, etc.). Many classical texts are in Sanskrit (Tattvartha Sutra, Puranas, Kosh, Sravakacara, Mathematics, Nighantus, etc.). “Abhidhana Rajendra Kosha” written by Acharya Rajendrasuri is just an available Jain encyclopedia or dictionary for understanding Jain Prakrit, Ardha-Magadhi and other languages, words, their uses and references in the oldest Jain literature .[citation needed]

Jain literature has been written in Apabhraṃśa (Kahas, Rasas and grammars), Standard Hindi (Chhahadhala, Moksh Marg Prakashak and others), Tamil (Nālaṭiyār, Civaka Cintamani, Valayapathi and others), and Kannada (Vaddaradhane and various other texts). Jain versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata can be found in Sanskrit, Prakrits, Apabhraṃśa and Kannada.[citation needed]

Jain Prakrit is a term that is used loosely for the language of the Jain Agamas (canonical texts). The books of Jainism were written in the popular indigenous dialects (as opposed to Sanskrit, the classical standard of Brahmanism) and therefore include a number of related dialects. The most important of these is Ardha Magadhi, which has also been identified as the final form of Prakrit due to its extensive use. Other dialects include versions of Maharashtri and Sauraseni.

Influence on Indian literature [edit]

Mangulam inscription from the 2nd century BC

Parts of the Sangam literature in Tamil are ascribed to Jains. The authenticity and interpolations are controversial because they present Hindu ideas. Some scholars state that the Jain parts were added around or after the 8th century AD and are not ancient. Tamil Jain lyrics like that Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi and Nālaṭiyār are credited to Digambara Jain authors. These texts have been interpolated and revised. For example, it is now generally accepted that the Jain nun Kanti inserted a 445 verse poem Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi in the 12th century. Jain Tamil literature, according to Dundas, "has been lovingly studied and commented on by Hindus and Jains for centuries". The themes of two of the Tamil epics, including the Silapadikkaramhave an embedded influence of Jainism.

Jain scholars also contributed to the Kannada literature. The Digambara Jain texts in Karnataka are unusual in that they were written under the auspices of kings and regional aristocrats. You describe warrior violence and martial bravery as synonymous with a “fully committed Jain ascetic” who ignores the absolute non-violence of Jainism.

Jain called manuscript libraries bhandaras The Jain temples are home to the oldest in India. Jain libraries, including the Śvētāmbara collections in Patan, Gujarat, and Jaiselmer, Rajasthan, and the Digambara collections in Karnataka temples, have a large number of well-preserved manuscripts.[50] This includes Jain literature as well as Hindu and Buddhist texts. Almost all of them have been dated to or after the 11th century AD. The largest and most valuable libraries are in the Thar Desert, hidden in the underground vaults of the Jain temples. These collections have been harmed by insects, and only a small part has been published and studied by scientists.

See also [edit]

  1. ^Not to be confused with the four Vedas of Hinduism.

References [edit]

Quotes [edit]

  1. ^SuryaprajnaptiSūtraArchived June 15, 2017 in the Wayback Machine, The Schoyen Collection, London / Oslo
  2. ^Umāsvāti 1994, p. xi - xiii, quote: “That which is known as that Tattvartha Sūtra for Jains, is recognized by all four Jain traditions as the earliest, most authoritative, and most comprehensive summary of their religion. "
  3. ^“Digambar Literature”, jainworld.com
  4. ^Banerjee, Satya Ranjan (2005). Prolegomena to Prakritica et Jainica. Asian society. p. 61.
  5. ^Guy, John (Jan 2012), “Jain Manuscript Painting”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Heilburnn Art History Timeline, archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013

Sources [edit]

  • Balcerowicz, Piotr (2003), Essays in Jain Philosophy and Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
  • Spuler, Bertold (1952), Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill, ISBN
  • Chatterjee, Asim Kumar (2000), A Comprehensive History of Jainism: From Its Earliest Beginnings to A.D. 1000, Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN
  • Cort, John E., eds. (1998), Open Borders: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN
  • Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2012), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Routledge, ISBN * * Gheverghese, Joseph George (2016), Indian Mathematics: Exploring the World from Antiquity to Modern Times, World Scientific, ISBN
  • Dalal, Roshen (2010) [2006], The Religions of India: A Brief Guide to Nine Major Beliefs, Penguin books, ISBN
  • Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2012), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Routledge, ISBN
  • Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second Edition), London and New York: Routledge, ISBN
  • Dundas, Paul (2006), Olivelle, Patrick (Eds.), Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BC Until 400 AD, Oxford University Press, ISBN
  • Finegan, Jack (1989), An Archaeological History of Religions in Indian Asia, Paragon House, ISBN
  • Jain, Champat Rai (1929), Risabha Deva - The founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited,
  • Jain, Champat Rai (1929), The practical dharma, The Indian Press Ltd.,
  • Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandras Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self with Hindi and English translation, Vikalp printer, ISBN,
  • Jain, Vijay K. (2016), Ratnakarandaka-śrāvakācāra by Ācārya Samantabhadra: The jewel box of the conduct of homeowners, Vikalp printer, ISBN,
  • Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl (1927), Gommatsara Jiva-kandaAlt url
  • Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1991), Gender and Salvation: Jain Debates on Spiritual Liberation for Women, University of California Press, ISBN
  • Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998) [1979], The Jain Way of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
  • Johnson, WJ (1995), Harmless souls: Karmic bondage and religious change in early Jainism with special reference to Umāsvāti and Kundakunda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
  • Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing, ISBN
  • Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin, ed. (2010), Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Eins: AB (2nd edition), ABC-CLIO, ISBN
  • Shah, Natubhai (2004) [First published in 1998], Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
  • Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN
  • Spuler, Bertold (1952), Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill, ISBN
  • Umāsvāti, Umaswami (1994), What is (Translator: Nathmal Tatia), Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN
  • von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1925), Jainism: An Indian religion of salvation [Jainism: An Indian religion of salvation], Shridhar B. Shrotri (trans.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (reprint: 1999), ISBN
  • Zvelebil, Kamil (1992), Accompanying Studies on the History of Tamil Literature, Brill Academic, ISBN

External links [edit]

Śvētāmbara
Canonical texts
Digambara texts

Tattvartha Sutra is accepted as their texts by both Digambara and Śvetāmbara, although Śvetāmbaras do not include it in canonical texts.