What is the second ionization energy
What is the ionization energy? Definition and explanation ...
The Ionization energy, in literature too Enthalpy of ionization or Ionization energy called, indicates the energy that is required to remove an electron from an atom or molecule, which is in the gaseous state of aggregation.
Ionization describes in general the separation of an electron from an atom, e.g. by ionizing radiation. In the case of a neutrally charged atom, this means that it has a positive charge after the electron has been removed. Because electrons are negatively charged. The 'removal' of this negative charge leads to a positive excess charge in the atom.
Values given in the periodic table generally refer to the first ionization energy. This relates to the energy required to remove the first, least strongly bound electron. Of course, more electrons, if any, can be removed from the atom. In this context one speaks of 'second ionization energy', 'third ionization energy', and so on. The energy required for this increases more and more with each electron that is to be removed further.
The force of attraction of the atomic nucleus essentially determines the energy required for ionization. The higher the attraction of the atomic nucleus on the electron, the more energy has to be expended. Helium is the chemical element with the highest ionization energy. This is particularly due to the electron configuration or the electron shell of helium. The valence shell, i.e. the outermost electron shell in the electron shell, is also the only electron shell in helium. This makes the atomic nucleus particularly attractive to the electron. In stark contrast to an element such as silver: with a total of five electron shells, the valence shell is significantly further away from the atomic nucleus, which means that the force of attraction on the valence electrons is less. However, it must also be taken into account that silver has a significantly higher atomic number. The attraction of the atomic nucleus is thus much stronger than that of helium. Nevertheless, the lower attraction force on the electrons, caused by the valence shell lying further out, predominates. Two rules can now be derived from this:
1. The ionization energy sinks within a group of the periodic table because new electron shells are added (this reduces the attraction of the atomic nucleus to the valence electrons further away).
2. The ionization energy increases within a period of the periodic table because the atomic number increases (and with it the attraction of the atomic nucleus).
- The Beach Boys were good singers
- Working mineral stones
- What personalities contribute to the charisma
- What are good websites for nurses
- What if you only drink gin
- Painful hearing loss is common among musicians
- What currency does Israel use
- Can astigmatism be cured with glasses
- Can I learn to skateboard in one day?
- Are Roth contributions tax deductible?
- Are tourists good for a country?
- How many satellites have deteriorated in space
- What is heat in evaporation
- Who invented the concept of computer networks
- What breed is your dog
- What is the prophecy of Azor Ahai
- Why are golfers replacing their divots
- It was uncomfortable to receive rejection
- What is Muscat's Most Important Natural Resource?
- How did cave people paint
- Will Hollywood ever have a golden period again?
- When will Queen stop touring?
- Local Search Engine Optimization Who supports these subdomain directories
- What does advantage mean in tennis