Influences the use of a dependent on the FAFSA


  • De Moor, Elisabeth, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Wilco H. M. Emons, Wiebke Bleidorn, Maike Luhmann, Ulrich Orth & Joanne M. Chung. 2021. Self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships across time. Journal of personality and social psychology 120.1, 173-191. DOI: 10.1037 / pspp0000379
  • Research on the longitudinal association between self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships has led to ambiguous conclusions regarding the temporal order and strength of this relation. Existing studies have examined this association across intervals ranging from days to years, leaving it unclear as to what extent differences in timing may explain differences across studies. In the present study, we used continuous time structural equation models (ie, CT-SEM) to examine cross-lagged relations between the constructs, and also distinguished between-person differences from within-person processes (ie, RI-CT-SEM) . We analyzed 10 years of annual data from the Longitudinal Internet Studies of the Social Sciences (N = 14.741). When using CT-SEM, we found a bidirectional positive relation between self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships, with larger effects over longer intervals. When using RI-CT-SEM, we found the largest effects of self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships across intervals of 1 year, with smaller effect sizes at both shorter and longer intervals. In addition, the effect of fluctuations in people's satisfaction with social relationships on fluctuations in their self-esteem was greater than the reverse effect. Our results highlight the importance of considering time when examining the relation between self-esteem and interpersonal outcomes and likely psychological constructs in general. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2021. A longitudinal perspective on inter vivos transfers between children and their parents in need of long-term care. The Journal of the Economics of Aging 162.2 (Online First). DOI: 10.1016 / j.jeoa.2021.100324
  • Once a parent needs long-term care, intergenerational transfers from children to parents are considered as economically important. However, less is known on how child-to-parent transfers evolve, as these kinds of transfers are typically analyzed in the cross section. In the light of aging populations, this study examines how inter vivos transfers from adult children to elderly parents change once a parent needs LTC using longitudinal data from the German Family Panel. Transfers in the form of emotional support, financial support, household help, and personal care are distinguished. The results show that children respond to a parent’s need for long-term care by increasing inter vivos transfers. However, the results also reveal that children’s behavior varies by the type of transfer considered. It is concluded that key policy issues, which address the growing need for long-term care in aging societies, should not be discussed without considering the transmission mechanism within the family. This study shows that children react to a parent’s need for log-term care. Likewise, children are also expected to react to changes in the availability of publicly paid long-term care services.

  • El Ghaziri, Nahema, Joëlle Darwiche, Jean ‐ Philippe Antonietti & Ulrich Orth. 2021. Importance of Self ‐ Esteem for the Parental Couple: Testing for Actor and Partner Effects. Family Relations (Online First). DOI: 10.1111 / fare.12532
  • Objective

    This study investigated the actor and partner effects of self-esteem on the quality of the parental couple relationships: the romantic relationship and the coparental relationship. The mediating role of romantic quality was also considered.


    Previous findings suggest that self-esteem affects the quality of the romantic relationship. Yet few studies have focused on self ‐ esteem in the parental couple or explored self ‐ esteem related to the coparental relationship, both of which play a significant role in the nature of the family unit.


    Using data from two independent samples (including 2,549 couples), actor-partner interdependence models were tested to analyze the effects of self-esteem on both relationships of the parental couple.


    Parents with high self-esteem reported higher romantic quality, as did their partner. Self-esteem also showed actor and partner effects on negative coparenting. Accordingly, parents with high self-esteem reported fewer conflicts about the child and fewer undermining behaviors. In contrast, the link between self-esteem and positive coparenting received little support. However, when mothers had high self-esteem, they engaged more frequently in positive coparental behaviors, such as including the father. Finally, romantic relationship quality mediated by the actor and partner effects of self-esteem on negative coparenting.


    Having high self-esteem appears to be a couple resource with beneficial effects for both parents.


    Improving parents' self-esteem could be an important gateway for enhancing the functioning of families with romantic and coparental difficulties.

  • Fang, Shichen, Nancy L. Galambos & Matthew D. Johnson. 2021. Parent-Child Contact, Closeness, and Conflict Across the Transition to Adulthood.Journal of Marriage and Family (Online First). DOI: 10.1111 / jomf.12760
  • Objective

    This study examined whether youth and parent perceptions of parent – ​​child contact, closeness, and conflict change during the transition to adulthood, and how perceived parent – ​​child relations vary as a function of life course experiences such as residential, education, and relationship status.


    The parent-child relationship is one of the most influential and long-lasting social ties. Much research on this relationship focuses on childhood, adolescence, and late life, with data from one generation only. Guided by a life course perspective, this study sought to investigate youth and parent perceptions of parent – ​​child relations during the transition to adulthood — a relatively understudied area.


    Data were from a community sample of German parent – ​​child dyads (N = 2,301, 50% daughter, 65% mother) who participated in the German Family Panel study (pairfam; and were followed annually from ages 17 to 22.


    Latent growth models revealed that parent-child contact and conflict decreased, and parent-child closeness remained relatively stable from ages 17 to 22; youth coresidence with parents was associated with higher levels of youth- and parent-reported contact and conflict, but youth student and relationship statuses were not related to changes in parent-child relations.


    This study describes general patterns of parent – ​​child relations in a transitional period and offers insights into the role of life course event status in changing parent – ​​child relations. Findings reveal separation from parents along with connectedness, and provide support for understanding development in the context of linked lives.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Gunter Kreutz. 2021. Familial cultural activities and child development - Findings from a longitudinal panel study. Leisure Studies (Online First), 1-15. DOI: 10.1080 / 02614367.2020.1843690
  • We investigated the associations between parent-child leisure activities and perceived relationships longitudinally during the transition from childhood to adolescence. The German Family Panel (pairfam) covering four biannual waves (N = 1,816 children; age range: 8-15 years; 48.4% female) between 2009 and 2015/16 served as our data base. Frequencies of engaging in book reading (Reading), singing or playing music (Music), and playing computer games (computer), were entered as independent measures, and children’s views onIntimacy, Prosocial Behavior otherConduct problems in their relationships with parents were entered as dependent measures in a series of regression analyzes. The results revealed complex associations between parent-child leisure activities and parent-child relationships across waves. Specifically,Reading otherMusic were found positively associated withProsocial Behavior, andcomputer was found negatively associated with this variable, and positively associated withConduct problems. Gender differences and influences of socioeconomic variables were noted. These findings suggest important and continued roles of parent-child leisure activities to regulate intrafamilial relationships during later childhood and the early stages of puberty. Further research is required to investigate the moderators of these associations and underlying mechanisms.

  • Gröpler, Nicolai, Johannes Huinink & Timo Peter. 2021. Does the birth of a child still prompt a marriage? A comparison of Austria, France, Germany and Hungary.European Societies (Online First) .DOI: 10.1080 / 14616696.2021.1922930
  • Austria, France, Germany, and Hungary are four neighboring European societies all with conservative welfare regimes, yet with distinct institutional and structural features. We investigate how these differences shape a particular example of culturally contingent behavior: cohabiting couples ’marriage behavior when they have a child. Based on a discussion of relevant differences in family policy, legal frames and normative contexts, we develop hypotheses on country-specific marriage patterns. We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data from the Generations and Gender Program (GGP) and the German Family Panel (pairfam). A number of relevant covariates were harmonized in order to be able to control for potential confounders which may affect the fertility process as well as marriage formation. Using discrete-time event history analysis, we observe robust differences in the effects of fertility on the marriage rate of cohabiting couples between the four countries. Pregnancy increases the marriage rate in Austria, Germany and Hungary, whereas no significant effect of fertility is found for France. After childbirth, the transition rate drops to its prepregnancy level in Austria and Germany and even below that in Hungary. Our findings point to a critical role of the socio-cultural context in which couples make relevant decisions about their private lives.

  • Hank, Karsten. 2021. Linked in Life and Death: A Note on the Effect of Parental Death on Sibling Relations in Young and Middle Adulthood. Journal of Family Issues (Online First), 1-12. DOI: 10.1177 / 0192513X20985566
  • Despite the important role of adult parent-child and sibling relations in the family system, only few studies have investigated yet, how the common adult experience of parental death impacts sibling relations. Estimating fixed-effects regression models using four waves of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; n = 4,123 respondents), the present note focused on changes in three dimensions of adult siblings ’relationship qualities following the first parent’s death. Our analysis revealed a short-term positive effect of parental death on sibling contacts as well as longer-lasting increases in emotional closeness and conflicts. Next to an intensification of sibling relations following the first parent’s death, we also detected significant spillover effects from respondents’ relationship with the surviving parent to their sibling relations. Our analysis thus provided evidence for adult parent-child and sibling relations to be “linked in life and death,” underlining the benefits of jointly analyzing intra- and intergenerational family relationships.

  • Huss, Bjorn. 2021. Well-Being Before and After Pregnancy Termination: The Consequences of Abortion and Miscarriage on Satisfaction with Various Domains of Life. Journal of Happiness Studies (Online First). DOI: 10.1007 / s10902-020-00350-5
  • The consequences of pregnancy outcomes other than live birth on subjective well-being have rarely been analyzed in research to date. This study examines pre-event determinants as well as the temporary and long-term effects of induced abortion and miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) on satisfaction with various domains of life. The data were derived from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam). The longitudinal sample consists of 5331 women of reproductive age, of whom 214 women had an induced abortion, 331 women had a miscarriage, and 1156 women had a live birth during the observation period. First, pre-event measures of women who had an induced abortion and women who had a miscarriage were compared with the pre-event measures of those women who gave birth. Second, fixed effects models were used to examine whether overall or domain-specific life satisfaction changed following a pregnancy termination. The results show that pregnancies resulting in abortion or miscarriage were less frequently preceded by pregnancy intentions compared to those resulting in live birth, and that induced abortion — but not miscarriage — was furthermore accompanied by lower pre-event satisfaction than live birth. Following both miscarriage and induced abortion, women experienced temporary declines in overall life satisfaction and showed persistently lower satisfaction in several domains of life. With regard to induced abortion, pre-event measures were a better predictor of overall well-being than the consequences of the event itself. Low life satisfaction might therefore be a risk factor for having an abortion rather than a result.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Karsten Hank & Jennifer Yurkiw. 2021. Longitudinal Associations Between Adult Relations with Intimate Partners and Siblings. Journal of Marriage and Family 83.2, 551-562. DOI: 10.1111 / jomf.12710
  • Objective: Drawing on a relational developmental systems approach, this brief report examines spillover and compensation processes in self-disclosure and conflict in adult relations with intimate partners and siblings.

    Background: Although some studies have examined links between sibling and partner relationships during adolescence, no research has examined the link between dynamics with siblings and intimate partners in adulthood.

    Method: This study draws on longitudinal survey data from 1,709 individuals participating in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study and latent change score modeling to answer the research questions.

    Results: Several associations supported the spillover hypothesis: those with more self ‐ disclosure or conflict with their partners also tended to report more self ‐ disclosure or conflict with their sibling at baseline and those who experienced intraindividual reductions in self ‐ disclosure and conflict in one relationship over time also experienced concurrent intra-individual reductions in self-disclosure and conflict in the other relationship. Those with higher initial levels of conflict with their partner also experienced a more gradual decrease in sibling conflicts across time. Two findings provided evidence of compensatory processes: those who reported more frequent conflicts with their partners at baseline also reported higher concurrent self-disclosure with their sibling and those experiencing increased conflict with a partner experienced steeper declines in future sibling conflict.

    Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of considering spillover and compensation in adult relationships with siblings and intimate partners.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2021. Reduced relationship desire is associated with better life satisfaction for singles in Germany: An analysis of pairfam data. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (Online First). DOI: 10.1177 / 02654075211005024
  • This research estimates the extent to which life satisfaction of singles is influenced by their desire to be single. Regression analyzes on data from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) studies are used to investigate this question, paying particular attention to longitudinal differences between never-married and divorced / separated men and women. Panel data analyzes between different waves of the pairfam data indicate that decreases in desires for a relationship are significantly associated with greater life satisfaction. These patterns hold for all but one of the demographic groups investigated (divorced / separated men). The results are used to suggest how many singles may be able to maintain high levels of life satisfaction in the face of social stigmata.

  • Kreuzer, Marianne & Mario Gollwitzer. 2021. Neuroticism and satisfaction in romantic relationships: A systematic investigation of intra- and interpersonal processes with a longitudinal approach. European Journal of Personality 12.1. DOI: 10.1177 / 08902070211001258
  • Relationship satisfaction — the degree to which a close relationship is perceived as rewarding and satisfying by both partners — is reliably predicted by both partners ’neuroticism, but the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect are not sufficiently well understood. By analyzing several cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes simultaneously, the current longitudinal study looked at how both partners ’neuroticism affects their respective (and mutual) relationship satisfaction both on an intra- and on an interpersonal level. Dyadic data from 2090 heterosexual couples from the “Pairfam” study were analyzed with Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Models (APIMeM). Results support the assumption that neuroticism reliably predicts cognitive, emotional, and behavioral variables, which, in turn, predict both partners ’relationship satisfaction. Importantly, cognitive processes play a particularly important role both on an interpersonal as well as on an intrapersonal level. These findings help to shed light on the maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes underlying the effect of neuroticism on relationship satisfaction.

  • Morgan, Preston C., Michelle Washburn-Busk, Hunter M. Stanfield & Jared A. Durtschi. 2021. The Role of Leisure Activities on Partnered Men’s and Women’s Types of Depressive Symptoms Over Time. Marriage & Family Review (Online First). DOI: 10.1080 / 01494929.2021.1902454
  • Leisure activities may mitigate depressive symptoms, but it is unclear in what way leisure activities may be linked with depressive symptoms in partnered men and women.Using 1,156 heterosexual German couples from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) study and a Family Systems theoretical framework, this study tested separate growth mixture models of partnered men’s and women’s depressive symptom trajectories. The results supported three types of depressive symptom trajectories for both men and women: a low-stable type, moderate-increasing type, and moderate-decreasing type. Results revealed that the more time partnered men and women spent with friends was associated with increases in depressive symptoms trajectories in the moderate-increasing types, but decreases in depressive symptom trajectories in the moderate-decreasing types. These findings provide a better understanding of the link between leisure activities and partnered men’s and women’s depressive symptoms over time. We suggest therapists explore in greater depth the effects of leisure activities on clients as certain leisure activities could be helpful or unhelpful depending on the type of depressive symptoms and gender.

  • Müller, Bettina & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2021. Do respondents get used to answering sensitive questions? Public Opinion Quarterly 19 p. 71. DOI: 10.1093 / poq / nfaa041
  • Issues associated with collecting data on sensitive topics are widely studied in survey research. Respondents ’reactions to sensitive questions have rarely been addressed from a longitudinal perspective, however, despite panel surveys representing a fundamental data source for social research. This article evaluates whether respondents' acceptance of sensitive questions increases with repeated interviewing in a panel survey. Drawing on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we apply fixed-effects regression models to assess within-respondent changes in refusal to items on sexuality and fertility. The analysis reveals that refusal attenuates for some, but not all questions under study and increases for other items over time, with patterns varying across age groups. We conclude that a general beneficial effect of panel experience on the refusal to answer questions regarding sexuality and fertility does not exist. Rather, refusal patterns appear to stem from aging processes and specific life situations.

  • Nauck, Bernhard & Qiang Ren. 2021. Coresidence with kin and subjective well-being in the transition to adulthood: A comparison of the United States, Germany, Japan and China. Chinese Journal of Sociology 7.1, 22-47. DOI: 10.1177 / 2057150X20984864
  • Although residence patterns during the transition to adulthood are dynamic and have a high influence on subjective well-being, empirical studies are scarce, especially with regard to international comparisons. The way living arrangements during the transition to adulthood are normatively framed in bilinear, neolocal kinship cultures is very different from the way they are framed in patrilineal, patrilocal cultures. Thus, living arrangements such as living alone, living with parents and especially living with in-laws should correspond to varying levels of well-being depending on the culture. Based on panel data (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - NLSY97, German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics, Japanese Life Course Panel Survey and China Family Panel Studies), we analyzed the levels of subjective well-being of young adults aged 20– 35 in households of varying family composition across cultures and over time. Differences between patrilineal, patrilocal kinship systems in Japan and China and bilineal, neolocal kinship systems in Germany and the United States became evident in lower levels of subjective adults adults well-being of young in China and Japan than in Germany and the United States, when living alone or in single-parent families. Germany and the United States were similar in their strong gender differences in subjective well-being, with young women showing a much lower level than men, but differed with regard to the variation by coresidence type, which was higher in the United States than in Germany . Gender differences in Japan and China were related to living in extended households, which resulted in very low levels of subjective well-being for young women, whereas the impact was small in China. Despite the differences in kinship systems, institutional regulations, and opportunity structures, living in a nuclear family of procreation was associated with the highest level of subjective well-being for young men and women in all four countries.

  • Park, Yoobin, Emily A. Impett, Geoff MacDonald. 2021. Generalizability of Results From Dyadic Data: Participation of One Versus Two Members of a Romantic Couple Is Associated With Breakup Likelihood. Personality & social psychology bulletin 47.2, 232-240. DOI: 10.1177 / 0146167220920167
  • With a growing body of relationship research relying on dyadic data (i.e., in which both members of a couple are participants), researchers have raised questions about whether such samples are representative of the population or unique in important ways. In this research, we used two large data sets (Study 1:n = 5.118; Study 2:n = 5.194) that included participants with and without a romantic partner participating to examine if co-participation status has substantive relationship implications. Results showed that co-participation status predicted breakup even after controlling for other known predictors such as satisfaction, although the effect weakened over time (Study 2). There was also tentative evidence that factors such as conflict may be differentially related to breakup among couples in which one versus both partners participated. These findings raise caution in interpreting effects found in dyadic studies and highlight the need to be mindful of potential bias in recruitment.

  • Richter, Julia & Christine Finn. 2021. Transactions between self-esteem and perceived conflict in romantic relationships: A 5-year longitudinal study. PloS one 16.4, e0248620. DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0248620
  • Self-esteem has been shown to be both predictive of and predicted by characteristics of romantic relationships. While there is an increasing number of studies yielding support for reciprocal influences between self-esteem and perceived conflict in romantic relationships, longitudinal transactions between these constructs from both partners ’perspectives have not been studied systematically to date. Our aim was to close this gap. To that end, we examined the transactional and longitudinal interplay between self-esteem and perceived relationship conflict in continuing romantic couples from a dyadic perspective. Our sample consisted ofN = 1,093 young adult female-male relationships from the German Family Panel. Individuals ’self-esteem, perceived conflict frequency, and their perceptions of their partners’ dysfunctional conflict styles (i.e., unconstructive behavior, withdrawal) were examined annually throughout a time span of five years. Based on dyadic bivariate latent change models, we tested our assumption that self-esteem and aspects of perceived relationship conflict are negatively interrelated within individuals and between partners both within and across time. We found one actor effect of self-esteem on changes in unconstructive behavior above and beyond initial unconstructive behavior levels, supporting self-broadcasting perspectives. Moreover, we found strong support for sociometer perspectives. Actor effects highlighted the importance of perceived conflict frequency for subsequent self-esteem changes. In addition, perceived conflict styles affected both partners ’self-esteem. The results imply that perceiving conflict is a between-person process, and might be more important for the development of self-esteem than vice versa.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Christiane Bozoyan. 2021. Do Economic Hardship and Pressure Really Influence Parenting? European Sociological Review 37.2287-304 DOI: 10.1093 / esr / jcaa051
  • Poverty and its effect on parenting in the context of the family stress model have a long tradition in research, but results are rather mixed. Following this theoretical approach, we analyze whether poverty and financial pressure are associated with disrupted parenting. We draw on data from the German Family Panel pairfam and implement both between and within approaches to test whether parenting behaviors are associated with economic hardship and pressure. While basic between-group regressions confirm the link between economic hardship and parenting as predicted by the family stress model, we do not find a significant association of poverty and parenting when including additional confounders or using fixed-effects models. We conclude that rather than the financial situation itself unobserved heterogeneity causes differences in parenting behaviors between better and worse off families, at least in Germany.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Carolin Thönnern. 2021. Positive and negative perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic: Does personality play a role? Social Science & Medicine 276.113859. DOI: 10.1016 / j.socscimed.2021.113859
  • Objective: The lockdown measures following the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, intended to slow the spread of the virus, forced a sudden and dramatic change to most everyday lives. However, not all individuals may have been affected in the same way. In addition to situational factors such as occupation, family status, and health, personality traits may affect how individuals experienced the initial crisis.

  • Methods: Using data from the pairfam COVID-19 survey, an online survey of the participants of the German Family Panel pairfam conducted from May to July 2020, as well as personality data from the pairfam panel data, this study shows that three of the Big Five personality traits - neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experiences - influence the degree to which young and middle-aged individuals (16 to 49 years old) felt negatively affected by and were able to see any benefits of the initial COVID-19 lockdown in Germany.

    Results: While neuroticism is linked to a more negative perception of the restrictions to daily life, openness to experiences is associated with more positive perceptions of the situation. Like neuroticism, extraversion is also associated with a more negative perception, but only among respondents without a partner. For respondents with a romantic partner, no association was found.

    Conclusion: Results confirm that personality plays a role in individual perceptions of the pandemic situation. Moreover, they show that most individuals perceived not only negative but also positive aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic situation.

  • Yucel, Deniz & Beth A. Latshaw. 2021. How Do Mothers ’and Fathers’ Work – Family Conflict Impact Children’s Problem Behaviors? Journal of Family Issuep. 42.3, 571-98. DOI: 10.1177 / 0192513X20926209
  • Using 509 mother / father – child dyads drawn from Wave 8 of The German Family Panel (pairfam), this study examines the direct effects of mothers 'and fathers' work – family conflict (WFC) on children's internalizing (emotional) and externalizing (conduct ) problem behaviors. We also test whether these effects are moderated by several child characteristics and family characteristics. Results suggest that both mothers ’and fathers’ WFC are associated with greater emotional problems, whereas only mothers ’WFC is associated with greater conduct problems. The detrimental effect of fathers ’(mothers’) WFC on emotional problems is stronger for older children and girls (households with a preschool-aged child and boys). While there is no direct effect of fathers ’WFC on conduct problems, results show that the detrimental effect of mothers’ WFC on conduct problems is stronger for boys, as well as in households with more children and those with a preschool-aged child.

  • Yurkiw, Jennifer & Matthew D. Johnson. 2021. Perceived Stress, supportive dyadic coping, and sexual communication in couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (Online First). DOI: 10.1177 / 0265407521996446
  • This study investigated associations between perceived stress and sexual communication, considering supportive dyadic coping as a potential mediator and whether being male or female moderated associations. Data from 2,529 couples from Wave 5 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) were used in the analyzes. Structural equation modeling results showed higher levels of stress were linked with lower levels of dyadic coping and higher levels of dyadic coping were associated with higher levels of sexual communication. There was no direct association between stress and sexual communication, but there was an indirect relationship between higher levels of perceived stress and less sexual communication via supportive dyadic coping. Sex did not moderate these associations. These results highlight supportive dyadic coping as an important protective factor against the effects of perceived stress on sexual communication and call for further investigation of how couples can maintain a healthy sex life in the face of stress.

  • Carpenter, Okka. 2021. Is Early Partnership Formation Instrumental for Fertility in Germany? Influences of Fertility Orientations on Partnership Transitions. Comparative Population Studies46, 3-34. DOI: 10.12765 / CPoS-2021-01
  • Using panel data from childless respondents of the German Family Panel (pairfam, n = 3,802 respondents), this paper investigates whether fertility orientations (biographical orientations with respect to fertility) influence the risk of different partnership transitions among German men and women over the age of 18 (for n = 14,572 observation periods between two panel waves). Significant influences are found for both gender and partnership transition types, and are generally stronger among men than women and for the transition to a coresidential as opposed to a romantic partnership. Uncertainty about anticipated fertility has a stronger negative impact on transition risks among men than among women. Results strongly suggest that the early stages of the partnership formation process are instrumental in terms of future fertility in Germany, at least to some degree. This indicates that a more comprehensive conceptualization and analysis of fertility within the life course paradigm (as suggested by Huinink / Kohli 2014) should consider the impacts of fertility orientations on life course events in other dimensions, especially among men. Viewed more broadly, the results also underline two factors: the role of agency in coordinating life course dimensions in time and space in order to maximize individual welfare; and the importance of considering the impacts that anticipation of future life course events will have, as suggested by different theoretical approaches.

  • Zoch, Gundula. 2021. Thirty Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall — Do East and West Germans Still Differ in Their Attitudes to Female Employment and the Division of Housework? European Sociological Review (Online First). DOI: 10.1093 / esr / jcab002
  • Previous cross-sectional studies highlight persistent East – West differences in gender ideologies after German reunification. This study examines the extent to which gender ideologies in the East and West have converged and whether differences are still relevant for younger cohorts who experienced childhood around the time of reunification, or after 1989. Using data from the German Family Panel pairfam (2008-2019 ) and differences in regime-specific socialization for three cohorts born before and after reunification, results reveal that different dimensions of gender ideologies have only partly converged 30 years after reunification. Attitudes towards housework and female employment converged particularly, yet, in all cohorts, views on maternal employment remain substantially different between East and West. Observed convergence occurred only partly due to contrasting trends of modernization in West Germany and re-traditionalization in East Germany. Moreover, the results highlight smaller attitude changes with increasing age, particularly for the younger cohorts, contributing to further variations in East – West differences. Overall, the findings confirm the existence of long-lasting ideology differences due to regime-specific socialization, and a persistently altered composition of society in East and West Germany. At the same time, they point towards slow convergence among younger cohorts due to a more similar institutional and socialization context following reunification.


  • Adams, Ayhan & Katrin Golsch. 2020. Gender-specific patterns and determinants of spillover between work and family: The role of partner support in dual-earner couples. Journal of Family Research (Online First). DOI: 10.20377 / jfr-373
  • Objective: The study investigates how partner support affects different types of work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts in dual-earner couples divided by gender and parenthood. Background: In Germany, as in other Western Countries, interrole conflicts between work and family increase, especially within dual-earner couples. Only few studies focused on the effects of partner support on different types of these conflicts.

    Method: We use longitudinal data deriving from waves 6 to 10 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) to uncover the extent to which the perception of having a supportive partner reduces time- and strain-based work-to-family and family-to- work conflicts. We conduct longitudinal structural equation models based on information of 1,252 persons, which are full-time employed and live in a dual-earner relationship.

    Results: Whereas for men partner support helps reduce stress-based work-to-family conflicts, for women perceived partner support is not beneficial. Within a subsample of parents, the experience of work-to-family conflicts is likely irrespective of partner support. Overall, women’s family-to-work conflicts appear to be reduced by their partners’ support whereas for men this detrimental effect only applies in the case of stress-based family-to-work conflicts.

    Conclusion: To sum up the findings, the differences for men and women in the effect of partner support on different types of interrole conflicts indicate a still existing impact of traditional gender norms that connect femininity to house work and masculinity to employed work.

  • Adams, Ayhan, Katrin Golsch & Kai-Olaf Maiwald. 2020. Solidarity in Couple Relationships - A Mixed Methods Approach.Journal of Sociology 49.2-3: 164-182. DOI: 10.1515 / zfsoz-2020-0016
  • In family research, there have not yet been many attempts to grasp theoretically and empirically solidarity in couple relationships, a gap that this study addresses combining qualitative and quantitative strategies.One purpose of this article is to develop a theoretical framework to understand solidarity as an overarching structural element of cooperation in couples. We then propose, in the best possible way, a measurement of solidarity to be used in quantitative analysis. To this end, data from the German Family Panel (pairfam, waves 2008-2017) are used in a longitudinal design. We offer an empirical test of our measurement by employing autoregressive cross-lagged analyzes with random intercepts (n = 2,588 couples) and establish the cause-and-effect relationship between solidarity and one important dimension of relationship quality, i. e. relationship satisfaction. The results of this analysis lend support to our assumption that couples cooperate on a basic rule of solidarity, having a unidirectional influence on relationship quality.

  • Augustijn, Lara. 2020. The intergenerational transmission of self-esteem.Journal of Sociology of Education and Socialization 40.4, 296-311. DOI: 10.3262 / ZSE2004296
  • Although self-esteem is of great importance for physical and mental health, no previous empirical study has investigated the potential relationship between parents ’and children’s self-esteem. To close this research gap, the present study examined the intergenerational transmission of self-esteem between parents and their children, while taking into account the mediating role of parents' use of negative communication and potential differences between same-sex and opposite-sex parent- child dyads. Based on data from the eighth and ninth waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), multilevel linear regression models were estimated for an analytical sample consisting of 1,121 children between the ages of nine and 16 and their parents. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that parents ’self-esteem was only moderately related to self-esteem in their children. Furthermore, the results suggested that negative parent-child communication partially mediated the relationship, leading to lower levels of self-esteem in the younger generation. However, no significant differences in the intergenerational transmission of selfesteem could be found between same-sex and opposite-sex parent-child dyads.

  • Borgmann, Lea-Sophie, Petra Rattay & Thomas Lampert. 2020. Longitudinal Analysis of Work-to-Family Conflict and Self-Reported General Health among Working Parents in Germany.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11/17 DOI: 10.3390 / ijerph17113966
  • The combination of work and family roles can lead to work-to-family conflict (WTFC), which may have consequences for the parents ’health. We examined the association between WTFC ​​and self-reported general health among working parents in Germany over time. Data were drawn from wave 6 (2013) and wave 8 (2015) of the German family and relationship panel. It included working persons living together with at least one child in the household (791 mothers and 723 fathers). Using logistic regressions, we estimated the longitudinal effects of WTFC ​​in wave 6 and 8 on self-reported general health in wave 8. Moderating effects of education were also considered. The odds ratio for poor self-reported general health for mothers who developed WTFC ​​in wave 8 compared to mothers who never reported conflicts was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.54–3.68). For fathers with newly emerged WTFC ​​in wave 8, the odds ratio was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.03-3.04). Interactions of WTFC ​​with low education showed no significant effects on self-reported general health, although tendencies show that fathers with lower education are more affected. It remains to be discussed how health-related consequences of WTFC ​​can be reduced e.g., through workplace interventions and reconciliation policies.

  • Borowsky, Christine, Sonja Drobnič & Michael Feldhaus. 2020. Parental commuting and child well-being in Germany. Journal of Family Research 32.2, 357–392 . DOI: 10.20377 / jfr-370
  • The number of people commuting to work is increasing, including those who spend at least two hours traveling to and from work per day. In Germany, the group of these long-distance commuters comprises about 1.6 million people. To date, there has been little research on the possible consequences of long commuting times for family life and commuters' children. On the basis of a pooled data set from the German Family Panel pairfam, we examine the relationship between parental commuting, the parent-child relationship and child well-being, both from the parent's as well as the child's perspective while also distinguishing between mothers and fathers. Some results indicate that long-distance commuting is associated with a poorer parent-child relationship and ultimately with lower child well-being. However, the association is rather sporadic and substantively weak.

  • Bozoyan, Christiane & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2020. Relationship satisfaction and infidelity: one connection, two directions. KZfSS Cologne journal for sociology and social psychology (Online First). DOI: 0.1007 / s11577-020-00660-9
  • How are unfaithful behavior in a relationship and satisfaction with the partnership related? Initially, the influence of the relationship quality on loyalty behavior appears plausible: the more dissatisfied a partner is in a relationship, the more likely he or she is to seek external relationships. However, this does not rule out that the quality of the partnership or its assessment can also change after the infidelity episode from the perspective of the perpetrator, e.g. B. due to conflicts and marital crises triggered by infidelity or to reduce feelings of cognitive dissonance. Using fixed-effects models based on data from the pairfam relationship and family panel over the observation period from 2008 to 2016, we investigate both possible directions of action in a longitudinal section with a one-year and two-year interval between the measurement times. It turns out that there are interactions between the two factors, with the effects of infidelity on relationship satisfaction being greater in women than in men. While the relationship between relationship satisfaction and the risk of infidelity is rather low, it has been shown that the risk of cheating increases significantly when the long-term orientation in the relationship decreases.

  • Brömmelhaus, Ana, Michael Feldhaus & Monika Schlegel. 2020. Family, Work, and Spatial Mobility: The Influence of Commuting on the Subjective Well-Being of Couples.Applied Research Quality Life 15.3: 865-891. DOI: 10.1007 / s11482-019-9710-z
  • Previous research shows that commuting is often accompanied by increased stress, exhaustion and less time for partners and children. On the basis of the life course approach and work-life balance theory, we argue that these negative outcomes also influence the dynamics of the social relationships of individuals who live together in the same household. Most research has focused on the commuter, whereas less is known regarding how commuting affects the subjective well-being of other household members, in this case, the partner. Our paper contributes to this research gap by analyzing the interdependencies of parents who commute in regard to their overall and domain-specific well-being. We use pooled data from three waves of the German Family Panel, which includes standardized information related to working conditions and job-related mobility as well as family dynamics fromboth parents ’perspectives. The resulting subsample hasN = 2443 dyads in families. Our dyadic analysis shows negative spillover effects of commuting times on all included measures of subjective well-being, but only for mothers. Moreover, there are two crossover effects: a negative crossover effect from mothers commuting on fathers ’satisfaction with family life and a positive crossover effect of fathers commuting on mothers’ satisfaction with social contacts outside the family (i.e. friends). Overall, the findings indicate that mothers own commuting works as a more general burden, whereas fathers seem to suffer more from their partner’s commuting time than vice versa.

  • Castiglioni, Laura. 2020. On the use of counseling services: Findings from the pairfam panel. Inventory online couple counseling. Munich: Deutsches Jugendinstitut e. V. [online at:].
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka, Antti O. Tanskanen & Francesco C. Billari. 2020. Meeting online and family-related outcomes: evidence from three German cohorts. Journal of Family Studies (Online First). DOI: 10.1080 / 13229400.2020.1835694
  • In recent years, the Internet has become an increasingly important venue for meeting partners. While meeting online may have a range of effects on family-related outcomes, studies on the link between meeting online and family-related outcomes are scarce. Using eight follow-up waves of the German Family Panel (Pairfam), with observations from 8177 persons from three birth cohorts between 2009 and 2016, this study investigates whether meeting online is associated with relationship satisfaction, intention to separate, separation, moving in together , intentions to have a child, and entry into parenthood. More specifically, a series of between-person regressions are used to compare those who met their partners offline and those who met their partners online. Results show that meeting online is associated with likelihood to separate and intentions to have a child in the youngest birth cohort, and transition to parenthood in the oldest birth cohort. These findings are discussed with the concepts of selectivity and intentionality in searching for and meeting partners online.

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2020. How Politico-Economic Systems Shape Individuals ’Value of Elderly Care: Evidence From the German Reunification.The gerontologist 60.2, 350–358. DOI: 10.1093 / geront / gnz128
  • Background and Objectives

    Perceptions of how societies should care for the elderly people can differ among countries. This study examines to what extent individuals ’value of informal care is shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up and if this value adjusts once an individual lives in a different politico-economic system.

    Research Design and Methods

    We use data from the German Family Panel and take advantage of the unique setting of the German separation and reunification. Probit models are used to examine the effect of being born in East Germany on individuals ’value of informal care relative to employment at different birth cohorts and survey waves (N = 14.093). Average marginal effects are calculated.


    Twenty years after reunification, East Germans who spent their adolescence under communism exhibit a higher value of informal care relative to employment than West Germans who grew up in a western social market economy. Differences in values ​​between East and West Germans do not significantly converge over time.

    Discussion and Implications

    Individuals 'value of informal care is deeply shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up. If immigration policies are introduced to increase the care for elderly people, differences in individuals' cultural perceptions of elderly care should be considered as these will not suddenly adjust.

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2020. The Importance of Cultural Traits in Children's Willingness to Provide Informal Care to a Parent. Innovation in Aging Volume 4.1, 561-562. DOI: 10.1093 / geroni / igaa057.1850
  • The likelihood that a child will provide informal care to a parent varies across countries and between social groups within countries. We highlight the importance of cultural traits in children’s value of informal care and their willingness to provide informal care to a parent. We initially construct a cultural measure of the strength of family ties at the country level using data from the World Values ​​Survey. Then, we use a sample of second-generation immigrants from the German Family Panel (N = 1,041) and regress their value of informal care on the strength of family ties that prevails in their parents' country of origin. Immigrants who have origins in countries with strong family ties are significantly more likely to report a high value of informal care. Finally, we show that children who report a high value of informal care are significantly more likely to provide informal care to a parent in need. Part of a symposium sponsored by the International Aging and Migration Interest Group.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2020. Job mobility and the arrangement of areas of life in families. BIOS 31 (1-2018), 150-176. DOI: 10.1037 / dev000089
  • This paper examines the effects of work-related mobility on families. Contrary to previous publications, the focus here is not explicitly on one area of ​​life or a central dependent variable, but on the interdependence of the areas of life following the assumptions of life course theory. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this broadened perspective and what typical patterns can be derived from it? In order to implement this question, in-depth qualitative interviews from the sample of the relationship and family panel were carried out and analyzed. The qualitative analysis takes place in two steps. After an initial open coding, the qualitative feature space of job-related mobility in the individual areas of life was recorded. Building on this, six typical arrangements of family areas of life can be distinguished, which are then discussed.

  • Finn, Christine, Matthew D. Johnson & Franz J. Neyer. 2020. Happily (n) ever after? Codevelopment of romantic partners in continuing and dissolving unions. Developmental Psychology 56.5, 1022-1028. DOI: 10.1037 / dev0000897
  • Do patterns of intimate relationship development foreshadow whether couples ’unions stay together or end in separation? Integrating tenets from the enduring dynamics and emergent distress models of relationship development, we propose an accumulating distress model suggesting that the trajectories of those in dissolving partnerships (ie, unions that ultimately end) are characterized by higher base levels of distress that increase more rapidly over time compared to those in continuing partnerships. In addition, we propose that this pattern applies to codevelopment between partners: those in dissolving unions are expected to have higher base dissimilarity that increases more rapidly over time compared to continuing couples. We further test whether the proposed patterns of codevelopment are equally apparent in young and middle adult couples. To test this model, we draw on data from 1,965 couples from 2 age groups in the German Family Panel study surveyed annually 7 times. Results support the concept of accumulating distress in the trajectories of relationship satisfaction, commitment, and conflict. For codevelopment, increasing dissimilarity in dissolving couples emerged for connectedness and autonomy in the relationship. In addition, dissolving partners became more similar in their low degree of commitment to the relationship. Age-related analyzes broadly replicated the pattern of accumulating distress in young and middle adult couples with few exceptions for young adult women. In sum, in accordance with an accumulating distress concept of relationship codevelopment, our results revealed higher base and increasing levels of distress and dissimilarity across time among partners in dissolving unions compared to continuing couples.

  • Fischer-Neumann, Marion & Petra Böhnke. 2020. Facets of parent-child relations in adulthood and their role in transmitting economic deprivation across generations. Advances in Life Course Research (Online First). DOI: 10.1016 / j.alcr.2020.100397
  • Despite the well-documented effect of parent-child relations in childhood on the reproduction of social disad-vantage, little is known about how relationships between parents and their grown-up children are associated with this process. The present study addresses this research gap by investigating whether structural, cognitive, and functional aspects of family social capital in adulthood are connected to the risk of relative income poverty and its intergenerational reproduction. Based on a longitudinal sample from data of the German Family Panel (pairfam), random effects regression models as well as mediation analysis (KHB method) reveal that affectual and structural facets of intergenerational relations in adulthood matter in two ways for understanding the intergenerational transmission of poverty. First, emotionally close intergenerational relations and living in proximity of the parental home in adulthood counterbalance the experience of economic deprivation in child-hood by alleviating poverty risks. Second, emotionally and spatially distant relations between adult children and their parents partially mediate the social inheritance of poverty across generations and time. We additionally tested the possible moderating role of migration background but could not find considerable evidence that later-life family social capital matters differently for native and migrant families in predicting the risk of poverty.

  • Gonzalez Avilés, Tita, Christine Finn, Franz J. Neyer. 2020. Patterns of Romantic Relationship Experiences and Psychosocial Adjustment From Adolescence to Young Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence (Online First). DOI: 10.1007 / s10964-020-01350-7
  • Engaging in a romantic relationship is a key developmental task of adolescence and adolescents differ greatly in both the age at which they start dating and in how romantically active they are. These differences in romantic relationship experiences could be relevant for adolescents ’short- and long-term psychosocial adjustment. The present study describes the diversity of relationship experiences during adolescence and examines their connection to psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. N = 2457 adolescents (49.3% female) from a German representative longitudinal study provided information on their relationship experiences between the ages of 10 and 20, as well as on their psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected via annual assessments starting in 2008 at age M = 16.50 years (SD = 0.88) through young adulthood (M = 25.46, SD = 0.87). Latent profile analysis identified three romantic involvement groups: late starters, moderate daters, and frequent changers, which were further compared to adolescents without any romantic experiences (continuous singles).Growth curve analyzes indicated that continuous singles reported lower life satisfaction and higher loneliness than the moderate daters in adolescence and young adulthood. The continuous singles were also less satisfied with their life in young adulthood and felt more lonely in both adolescence and young adulthood compared to the late starters. The findings of the study suggest great variability in adolescents ’romantic relationship experiences and point toward the developmental significance of these experiences for short- and long-term well-being.

  • Gummer, Tobias, Claudia Schmiedeberg, Martin Bujard, Pablo Christmann, Karsten Hank, Tanja Kunz, Detlev Lück & Franz J. Neyer. 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on fieldwork efforts and planning in pairfam and FReDA-GGS. Survey Research Methods 14.2: 223-227. DOI: 10.18148 / srm / 2020.v14i2.7740
  • The worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the fieldwork of surveys. The data collection efforts via the face-to-face mode have been affected especially, including the ongoing surveys that were in the field during the COVID-19 outbreak and the planned surveys scheduled for fieldwork later in 2020. We provide an account of how COVID -19 has impacted two family studies in Germany: “The German Family Panel” (pairfam) and the “Generations and Gender Survey” (GGS) both of which will be part of the “Family Research and Demographic Analysis” (FReDA) infrastructure. Based on pairfam, we illustrate the effects of the pandemic on ongoing data collection and the measures taken to proceed with fieldwork, and we report on a special COVID-19 survey. Based on FReDA-GGS, we outline how COVID-19 has affected our planned survey schedules, what future challenges are expected when fieldwork becomes possible again, and how we have adapted our plans accordingly.

  • Hank, Karsten & Anja Steinbach. 2020. The virus changed everything, didn’t it? Couples ’division of housework and childcare before and during the Corona crisis. Journal of Family Research (Online First). DOI: 10.20377 / jfr-488
  • Objective: To contribute to the discussion about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender (in) equality.

    Background:  We focus on a core aspect of gender (in) equality in intimate relationships, namely couples ’division of housework and childcare, and whether this has changed during the Corona crisis.

    Method: Our descriptive analysis is based on pre-release data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; Wave 12) and its supplementary Corona web-survey (n = 3.108).

    Results: We observe no fundamental changes in established aggregate-level patterns of couples ’division of labor, but some shift towards the extremes ('traditional' and 'role reversal') of the distribution. Regarding changes within couples, there is an almost equal split between those in which the female partner’s share in housework and childcare increased and those in which it decreased. Particularly in previously more egalitarian arrangements, a substantial proportion of women is now more likely to be primarily responsible for everything. If male partners increased their relative contribution to housework and childcare, they rarely moved beyond the threshold of an equal split. Changes in employment hours were associated with adaptations of men's, but not women's, relative contribution to domestic and family responsibilities.

    Conclusion: Our findings neither support the notion of a 'patriarchal pandemic', nor do they indicate that the Corona crisis might have fostered macro-level trends of gender convergence. We rather observe heterogeneous responses of couples to the 'Corona shock'.

  • Hämäläinen, Hans, Antti O. Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka & Bruno Arpino. 2020. Short-term reciprocity between adult children and parents: A within-person investigation of longitudinal data. Advances in Life Course Research 44. DOI: 10.1016 / j.alcr.2020.100337
  • Although reciprocity of intergenerational support has been widely considered in family studies, empirical investigations utilizing panel data are still rather scarce. This study used data from four waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), which were collected in two-year intervals between 2009 and 2016. We examined whether the frequency of received support from parents previously is associated with the frequency of provided support to parents later. Multiple forms of support were considered that may be used as currencies of intergenerational exchange (i.e., one could be exchanged for another): emotional support, practical help, financial aid and personal care. Our analyzes used multilevel regression models and investigated both between- and within-person effects. Between-person effects indicated mainly positive associations between different forms of received and provided support. However, these associations were confirmed by only a few of the within-person effects, which examined individuals ’variations over time. According to within-person effects, an increase in the frequency of emotional support that a son received from a parent was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial support for that parent. Additionally, an increase in the frequency of practical help that daughters received from their fathers was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial aid to their fathers. The magnitude of these positive within-person effects was smaller compared to the between-person effects. Within-person effects did not provide further evidence for causal intergenerational reciprocity within the investigated time period.

  • Heartily, Michel. 2020. Mediating Factors of Family Structure and Early Home-leaving: A Replication and Extension of van den Berg, Kalmijn, and Leopold (2018).European Journal of Population 36, 643-674. DOI: 10.1007 / s10680-019-09544-x
  • Young adults from non-intact families are more likely to leave the parental home at an early age than are young adults from intact families. While this association is well established in the existing literature, the underling mechanisms remain puzzling. In a recent investigation with prospective data from the SOEP (van den Berg et al. In Eur J Popul 34 (5): 873–900, 2018. , a large share of the effect of family structure on early home-leaving remained unexplained, in particular for stepfamilies. This study draws on longitudinal data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) to replicate and extend the analyzes of van den Berg et al. (Eur J Popul 34 (5): 873-900, 2018. The quality of the stepfather-child relationship, as well as parental monitoring and support, is added to existing analyzes. However, an extended assessment of social resources does not seem to substantially help explain the association between family structure and early home-leaving.

  • Hiekel, Nicole & Michael Wagner. 2020. Individualized Relationship Practices and Union Dissolution: Differences Between Marriage and Cohabitation.European Sociological Review (Online First). DOI: 10.1093 / esr / jcaa021
  • Emotional disclosure, self-determination and egalitarianism are considered central benefits of individualized relationships. Yet, the body of research linking relationship practices and union stability is sparse. We study the extent to which relationship practices in the spheres of intimacy, autonomy, and democracy affect the risk of union dissolution, comparing marriage and cohabitation. Using longitudinal data from nine waves of the German Pairfam survey, we predict union dissolution ofn = 3,650 cohabiting and married women and men. Cohabiters report higher levels of individualized relationship practices compared to the married. Intimacy is the key dimension predicting union stability. Individuals thus exhibit relatively low resilience towards decline in emotional gratification in their couple relationships. Autonomy and democracy are not empirically relevant to predict union stability beyond the extent to which they were connected to levels of intimacy. Differences between cohabitation and marriage were marginal with spouses ’benefits from higher levels of intimacy for union stability being larger compared to cohabiting individuals. Our study contributes to the analytical clarification of the consequences of the changing meaning of intimate relationships in individualized societies, and ultimately, to cultural explanations for increased relationship instability.

  • Hiekel, Nicole & Vidal, Sergi. 2020. Childhood family structure and complexity in partnership life courses. Social Science Research 87: 102–400 DOI: 10.1016 / j.ssresearch.2019.102400
  • Although reciprocity of intergenerational support has been widely considered in family studies, empirical investigations utilizing panel data are still rather scarce. This study used data from four waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), which were collected in two-year intervals between 2009 and 2016. We examined whether the frequency of received support from parents previously is associated with the frequency of provided support to parents later. Multiple forms of support were considered that may be used as currencies of intergenerational exchange (i.e., one could be exchanged for another): emotional support, practical help, financial aid and personal care. Our analyzes used multilevel regression models and investigated both between- and within-person effects. Between-person effects indicated mainly positive associations between different forms of received and provided support. However, these associations were confirmed by only a few of the within-person effects, which examined individuals ’variations over time. According to within-person effects, an increase in the frequency of emotional support that a son received from a parent was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial support for that parent. Additionally, an increase in the frequency of practical help that daughters received from their fathers was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial aid to their fathers. The magnitude of these positive within-person effects was smaller compared to the between-person effects. Within-person effects did not provide further evidence for causal intergenerational reciprocity within the investigated time period.

  • Horne, Rebecca M., Emily A. Impett & Matthew D. Johnson. 2020. Exclude me, enjoy us? Unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction across 7 years. Journal of Family Psychology 34.6: 653-663.DOI: 10.1037 / fam0000620
  • This study explored 2 key questions at the intersection of care, well-being, and development in romantic relationships. First, what are the links between unmitigated communion (i.e., being overinvolved with meeting a partner's needs to the exclusion of one's own needs) and both partners' relationship satisfaction over time? Second, are there gender differences in the longitudinal links between unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction? We answered these questions using data from 1,340 couples who participated in the German Family Panel over a 7-year period. Latent change score modeling results revealed that on average, people declined in both unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction over time, and these declines occurred in concert with each other across each wave: A more rapid decrease in unmitigated communion occurred in tandem with a more rapid decrease in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, higher initial levels of unmitigated communion predicted a slower rate of decline in relationship satisfaction, and higher initial levels of satisfaction stabilized future declines in unmitigated communion. Lastly, higher initial relationship satisfaction among men predicted a more gradual decline in female partners 'unmitigated communion, but women's satisfaction did not predict male partners' unmitigated communion. Overall, this is the first study to demonstrate the codevelopment of and bidirectionality between unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction in established romantic relationships. Unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction tend to bolster each other in ways that protect them from steeper declines across time, which may explain why people continue to give in relationships when it is personally costly to themselves.

  • Hudde, Ansgar. 2020. Homogamy in Gender Role Attitudes Among Young Couples: Evidence from Germany.Cologne Journal of Sociology and Social Psychology (Online First). DOI: 10.1007 / s11577-020-00711-1
  • Romantic partners ’similarity in gender role attitudes affects important outcomes such as sharing of housework, relationship stability, or fertility. However, there is little knowledge about how similar romantic partners are in these attitudes. Using dyadic panel data from German couples (sourced from pairfam), this study puts the degree of homogamy in gender role attitudes among young couples into perspective by comparing real couples with two types of counterfactuals. To create these counterfactuals, I re-mate couples in two ways: (a) randomly and (b) in such a way that similarity in attitudes between partners is maximized. Real couples differ only slightly from randomly mated couples, which suggests rather weak attitudinal similarity. Using longitudinal information, I further test the mechanisms that determine the degree of homogamy: there is strong evidence for alignment over time and for lower rates of separation among homogamous couples, but no evidence for homogamy as a by-product of assortative mating on other variables . This paper offers methodological and substantial contributions to the literature: it presents a method for intuitive assessment of the degree of homogamy with multiple variables simultaneously. It also shows that in Germany, macro-level diversity in attitudes largely translates into dissimilar attitudes between partners — with important implications for relationship dynamics.

  • Hudde, Ansgar & Henriette Engelhardt. 2020. Intra-Couple (Dis) Similarity in Gender Role Attitudes and the Transition to Parenthood in Germany. European Sociological Review (Online First). DOI: 10.1093 / esr / jcaa024
  • This paper tests whether couples in which partners hold dissimilar gender role attitudes are less likely to have a first child together compared to couples in which both partners share similar attitudes. The study contributes to micro-level research on gender role attitudes and fertility, which has examined the content of one partner’s attitudes, but not the fit of both partners’s views. We analyze unique panel data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) collected between 2008 and 2017, which includes information on the attitudes of both partners in a couple. Results show that couples whose members have dissimilar gender role attitudes are substantially and significantly less likely to have a child together over time. This observation holds independently of both partners ’individual attitudes and holds against a number of robustness checks.

  • Huss, Björn & Matthias Pollmann-Schult. 2020. Relationship Satisfaction Across the Transition to Parenthood: The Impact of Conflict Behavior. Journal of Family Issues 41.3: 383-411. DOI: 10.1177 / 0192513X19876084
  • The transition to parenthood is often accompanied by declines in relationship satisfaction. Using longitudinal data from six waves of the German family panel pairfam (N = 1,739), the authors tested whether these declines are driven by increases in and more intense forms of conflict (differential exposure hypothesis) and by a greater sensitivity to relationship conflicts after the transition to parenthood (differential vulnerability hypothesis). The analyzes showed strong support for the differential exposure hypothesis among women and partial support among men. Across the transition to motherhood, women experience increases in conflict that account for decreases in relationship satisfaction. The findings showed no support for the differential vulnerability hypothesis, as neither men’s nor women’s relationship satisfaction becomes more sensitive to relationship conflicts across the transition to parenthood.

  • Hünteler, Bettina & Clara H. Mulder. 2020. Geographic Proximity to Parents, Intergenerational Support Exchange, and Migration within Germany. European Journal of Population 36: 895-918. DOI: 10.1007 / s10680-020-09558-w
  • Previous research on internal migration has emphasized the importance of local ties to family members outside the household, and to parents in particular. Family members who live close to an individual’s place of residence represent a form of local social capital that could make migrating costlier, and therefore less likely. This idea has been empirically supported. Yet, how family ties bind remains largely unexplained. We assume that intergenerational support is a manifestation of local social capital, and that spatial proximity is needed for support to be exchanged. Thus, we used mediation analysis that includes explicit measures of support exchanges between parents and their adult-children born in 1971–1973, 1981–1983, and 1991–1993 to explain the binding effect of living close to parents. Logistic regression models of migrating a distance of more than 40 km were conducted using eight waves of the German pairfam data. Living close to one's parents was indeed found to be negatively associated with the likelihood of migration, and part of this association could be explained through intergenerational support: the more the instrumental support an adult child exchanged with her / his parent, the less likely she / he was to migrate. Receiving emotional support from the parents was associated with an increase in migration propensity. Neither giving emotional help nor receiving help with childcare functioned as mediators. It thus appears that adult children are particularly likely to value the proximity of their parents when they are exchanging instrumental support, but that the emotional bond between adult children and their parents can often be maintained over longer distances

  • Hünteler, Bettina & Martin Wetzel. 2020. Relationship-Based Selective Participation of Secondary Respondents in a German Multi-Actor Panel Study. Journal of Marriage and Family 82: 1677-1695. DOI: 10.1111 / jomf.12671
  • Objective

    This study investigates the extent to which participation of secondary respondents (SRs), here mothers, in a multi-actor study is cross-sectionally and longitudinally biased regarding relationship characteristics with the primary respondent (PR) of the same study.


    Family research emphasizes the importance of analyzing family relations over time and from the perspectives of several family members.Following the leverage ‐ salience theory, selective (re‐) participation of PRs and SRs might bias a sample toward certain relationship characteristics, in particular over time.


    For 8,579 PRs of the German Family Panel Study (, it is analyzed whether or not their mothers as SRs participated in Wave 2 and 4. A latent class analysis identifies relationship types based on the PR's evaluation of “Intergenerational solidarity and conflict”. Their influence on the respondents' probability of (re‐) participation is examined using simultaneously estimated linear probability models.


    Each of the four identified relationship types exhibited a particular but constant pattern of SR survey participation. This resulted in an overrepresentation of structurally and functionally closer relationships at each observation. This bias is mostly based on the PR's selectively given consent to interview her / his SR and to a smaller extent on the selective (re‐) participation of the SR or PR themselves.


    SR data are selective, but the degree of selectivity remains rather stable over time. We discuss these findings with respect to both data users and future data collectors.

  • Jalovaara, Marika & Michaela Kreyenfeld. 2020. Childbearing Across Partnerships in Finland and Germany. In Divorce in Europe, European Studies of Population 21 edited by Dimitri Mortelmans, 315-336. Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-25838-2_15
  • This chapter examines gender differences in “multipartner fertility” - i.e., having children with several partners - in Germany and Finland. The analyzes focus on women and men born around 1970 who are followed until age 41. We show that multipartner fertility is more common in Finland than in Germany. However, there are large East-West differences within Germany. East Germans are less likely to have a second or third child than West Germans, but those East Germans who progress to a higher order birth often have this child with a new part-ner. We also find some gender differences in behavior. Men display lower transition rates than women of having a second child with a new partner. Further, having a first child at an early age is strongly and positively associated with multipartner fertility. No consistent relationship between education and multipartner fertility was found for Germany. In Finland, however, low education is associated with elevated risks of having children with different partners.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Franz J. Neyer & Christine Finn. 2020. Subjective Well-Being Across Partnerships. Journal of Family Psychology (Online First). DOI: 10.1037 / fam0000793
  • Drawing on data gathered from 554 focal participants in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study surveyed at 4 time points spanning 2 intimate unions, this brief report investigated changes in 3 indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and self- esteem) across partnerships. Latent change score-modeling results showed no mean-level changes in life satisfaction or self-esteem from Time 1 in Partnership 1 to Time 2 of Partnership 2 and a slight increase in depressive symptoms across partnerships. This overall stability in subjective well-being was evident despite a series of changes in the interim period: Subjective well-being worsened as the end of Partnership 1 approached, improved after the initiation of Partnership 2, and leveled off as Partnership 2 progressed. Being female predicted worse initial subjective well-being at the outset of the study, a greater decrease in well-being as participants approached the end of Partnership 1, and an overall reduction in self-esteem and increase in depression symptoms across partnerships. Being older, married in Partnership 1, and having a longer duration first partnership predicted worse initial well-being, a steeper decrease in life satisfaction as Partnership 1 drew to a close, and older participants had lower life satisfaction across unions. These findings add to a growing literature documenting the remarkable stability of individual and relational functioning across time while also highlighting those most at risk of reduced subjective well-being across partnerships.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2020. How do relationship desire and sociability relate to each other among singles? Longitudinal analysis of the pairfam survey.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (Online First). DOI: 10.1177 / 0265407520933000
  • This study examines the effect of relationship desire on singles ’social lives and vice versa. Based on the German-based Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics study, never-married singles and divorced singles were analyzed. Cross-sectional results showed a correlation between the extent to which singles desire relationship and both the relative importance of friendships and overall social satisfaction. Further analysis, using longitudinal methods, showed that the move to a lower degree of relationship desire had a significant effect on the relative importance of friends. Furthermore, both higher levels of the relative importance of friends and social satisfaction are negatively correlated with relationship desire. These results clarify previous studies and point to the fact that singles with low relationship desire are more social and derive greater support from their friends.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2020. The Sexual Activity and Sexual Satisfaction of Singles in the Second Demographic Transition.Sexuality Research and Social Policy (Online First). DOI: 10.1007 / s13178-020-00496-0
  • Introduction

    Previous studies depicted a recent drastic reduction in sexual activity in tandem with the rise of the second demographic transition (SDT). However, very little attention has been paid to the questions of whether and how these processes are connected and how they play out in measuring sexual satisfaction among the diverse population of single people.


    Therefore, the current research focused on exploring this relation among the groups of never-married singles and divorced singles, further divided into men and women (N = 5944) and compared with married people (N = 18.733). Data were drawn from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) study.


    The results of this study indicated that voluntary singlehood positively correlates with sexual satisfaction among all four groups. Moreover, voluntary singlehood among women of both groups negatively correlates with sex frequency, desired sex frequency, and pornography usage, while among men voluntary singlehood negatively correlates with desired sex frequency.


    These results indicate that within the second demographic transition, voluntary singles are generally more sexually satisfied, and this is not associated with having more casual sex, but rather with desiring less sex and, among women, with being less sexually active relatively to involuntary single women .

  • Köppen, Katja, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe. 2020. Gender Differences in Parental Well-being After Separation: Does Shared Parenting Matter? In Parental Life Courses after Separation and Divorce in Europe, Eds. Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Heike Trappe, 235–264. Life Course Research and Social Policies 12. Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-44575-1_12
  • A large body of literature has examined how separation and divorce influence social and economic well-being. One consistent finding of the literature is that women and men are affected differently by divorce and separation. Women, and particularly mothers, are likely to suffer from a loss of income. Fathers frequently suffer from having reduced contact with their children, who usually continue to live with their mother after a union dissolution. This chapter uses 10 years of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) to examine more closely the gender differences in life satisfaction after separation. In line with previous research, we show that following a separation, satisfaction with family life declines more among fathers than among mothers, and that mothers tend to experience a greater decline in their satisfaction with their financial situation than fathers. We also examine the role of shared parenting (Interchangeable model) in parents ’life satisfaction. Our findings indicate that shared parenting is positively associated with well-being, but also that the association is not stable to the inclusion of socio-economic characteristics that explain the selection into shared parenting. The results are discussed in the context of the current German policy debate on shared parenting.

  • Krapf, Sandra & Michael Wagner. 2020. Housing Affordability, Housing Tenure Status and Household Density: Are Housing Characteristics Associated with Union Dissolution? European Journal of Population36, 735-764. DOI: 10.1007 / s10680-019-09549-6
  • Housing is an important dimension of social inequality between couples, but it has been largely ignored in prior research on union dissolution. Extending the literature that controlled for the stabilizing effect of homeownership, we investigate whether housing, measured as household density, housing tenure and housing affordability, is related to the risk of union dissolution. Based on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we analyze 3441 coresidential partnerships. We run discrete-time event-history models to assess the risk of separation within a time frame of 7 years. Housing affordability is found to be negatively related to the risk of union dissolution among couples, as those couples with a high residual income (i.e., household income after deducting housing costs) were less likely to separate than those with a lower residual income. By contrast, household density is found to be unrelated to separation. In line with previous research, our findings indicate that homeowners had more stable relationships than tenants. The analysis shows that this was the case regardless of whether the home was jointly owned or was owned by one partner only.

  • Kreutz, Gunter & Michael Feldhaus. 2020. Does music help children grow up? Parental views from a longitudinal panel study. Musicae Scientiae 24.2: 139–154. DOI: 10.1177 / 1029864918782581

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2019