How do circuit boards work

How does a circuit board work?

A circuit board is made up of modern devices that are equipped with electronics, such as computers, radio recorders, radio alarm clocks, copiers, printers, etc. indispensable.

Many children have certainly seen these green plates when their parents unscrewed or disassembled a device. A printed circuit board (it is also called a "circuit board", "printed circuit" or "printed circuit board") is used to fix the various components of an electronic circuit (transistors, circuits, resistors, capacitors or coils) and at the same time to fix them electrically, according to the circuit , connect to.

A raw, untreated printed circuit board consists of a solid, insulating material on which there is a layer of copper on the underside (nowadays often also on the top). Before the circuit board can be used, one must consider how the individual components are arranged and how they can be electrically connected. Sometimes you have to ponder over complicated, large circuits. Fortunately, there are computer programs that do this for us.

When the so-called circuit board design is ready, the holes for the individual components are drilled. The components are preferably inserted into the holes from one side; modern circuit boards also allow equipping on both sides. Now the electrical connections must be made between the points where the connections of the components will later look through the holes. Hobby electronics used to do this with an acid-resistant paint that simply covered the conductor tracks. The remaining, free-standing copper is etched away with an acid, the conductor tracks now remain.

Now you just have to put the components through the holes according to the circuit board design ("layout") and connect them electrically from below to the copper conductors. This is done by soldering on the "soldering eyes". The soldering points on the connections not only create an electrical connection, but the components are also mechanically fixed. Modern, industrial processes are more complex, use photochemical processes to produce the conductor tracks, use both sides of the circuit board for assembly, use plated-through holes or use components whose connections are not pushed through the holes, but are soldered flat on the circuit board on one side.

If you take a close look at a circuit board with children (you can remove defective devices), the children will quickly notice that the conductor tracks have no crossings. That doesn't work either, because then there would be an electrical short circuit at this point. Perhaps you can let children ponder how you could create a real intersection without a short circuit (hobby electronics engineers have often been happy to help themselves with this - keyword "wire bridge").

There are soldering products for electronics hobbyists:
Soldering iron and accessories

Photo 4: © seksanpk -

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