How did unemployment become a problem

Unemployment: how to avoid it

unemployment is the specter that haunts many people. The stigma and clichés that come with it, but also the real-world losses, make workers hope it will never affect them. Still, it is a real danger to deal with because whoever works can also become unemployed. Read here about the reasons for unemployment and how those affected find their way back into the labor market.

➠ Content: This is what awaits you

Unemployment Definition: Lack of employment

As unemployment (English unemployment) become lack of employment opportunities designated for employees who are able and willing to work. In terms of the market, unemployment means that there is an oversupply of labor that is offset by lower demand.

➠ Content: This is what awaits you

Types of unemployment: Often short-term only

The unmatched ideal is full employment. There is often speculation about the reasons for unemployment - often it is from Displeasure on the part of employees to listen. There are also fears on the part of the working population as well as the state that the German welfare state might promote unemployment.

Here would be then institutional unemployment given when state payments such as ALG I and ALG II are higher than the expected wage and the employee therefore has no incentive to go to work. There are also different types of unemployment that shed light on the reasons and causes.

Also demographic developments such as a baby boom or raising the retirement age have an impact on the labor market. Nowadays there is also a growing number of employed women and immigration to the labor market by migrants.

When it comes to unemployment, a distinction is usually made between:

  • Seasonal unemployment

    It is seasonal and therefore unavoidable. This can be observed in agriculture, tourism or in the construction industry. Climatic conditions lead to a decrease in the demand for labor because, for example, no harvest workers are required. Usually, this form of unemployment does not pose a serious economic problem and therefore no economic policy measures are taken to eliminate it.

  • Frictional unemployment

    This is the name given to the time between two jobs, because a short period of unemployment is often unavoidable when changing jobs. Fractional unemployment is also called search unemployment, with the duration of the search depending on various factors such as mobility and qualifications of the employee.

  • Economic unemployment

    This type of unemployment - also known as Keynesian unemployment - is caused by fluctuations in the economy. Due to a lower demand for consumer goods, companies try to cut losses by laying off workers. In times of economic upswing and when demand increases, new workers are hired again in order to be able to satisfy demand.

  • Structural unemployment

    Structural unemployment is when the supply of labor does not match the demand. This is an umbrella term under which regional, sectoral, technological or qualification-specific causes are summarized. The latter is the case, for example, if there is a discrepancy between the unemployed on the one hand and the qualifications required for the vacant positions on the other, i.e. the employees do not meet the requirements for employment in the vacant positions. In this case, one speaks of mismatch.

    • Regional unemployment: For example, the employee lives in a structurally weak area, but is not ready to move to another region in order to pursue a job in his area.
    • Sectoral unemployment: There are three sectors; the primary sector (agricultural sector), the secondary sector (manufacturing industry) and the tertiary sector (service sector). After the Second World War, Germany made a change from an agricultural economy to a service society. This means that fewer workers are needed in agriculture. Sectoral unemployment occurs here when workers become unemployed due to the loss of jobs in a sector. At the same time, a change from one sector to the other is not always possible due to a lack of knowledge.
    • Technological unemployment: Technical progress leads to the automation of many areas and thus to rationalization. Employees become superfluous, even temporarily higher investment costs are quickly offset by higher productivity.

Unemployment: causes and reasons

A certain percentage of the unemployed will become never let it be avoided, we are talking here of basic unemployment or residual unemployment. It is made up of frictional and structural unemployment and arises from the fact that factors such as age, qualifications, state of health, lack of mobility and / or motivation in the employee can result in a certain duration of unemployment.

Nevertheless, the question arises again and again about the Causes of unemploymentSo which factors are the main contributors. There are opinions like that of the social scientist Meinhard Miegel, who see the main cause of unemployment in the lack of flexibility of the employee:

The willingness of the population to take appropriate account of this change has been only moderate until recently and is still often insufficient today. Many hesitate to give up the industry-dominated view and behavior and to face the conditions of a knowledge, communication and information society. Politicians and trade unions encouraged and strengthened this stance by long portraying the changes as temporary or undesirable developments in need of correction.

Other researchers keep global competition in the wake of the Globalization and technical progress for the main causes. It is predicted that the demand for human labor will continue to decline in the future, while automation will progress at the same time (release theory).

According to the French social philosopher André Gorz, the idea of Full employment less likely, which is why he advocates a basic income. That would not only secure people's livelihoods, but also enable self-fulfillment.

Unemployment Consequences: Effects on Individuals and Society

The consequences of unemployment - and here mostly long-term unemployment is mentioned - are diverse and should not be underestimated. To do this, you have to briefly clarify what work can mean:

  • Activity: Man has to be active.
  • Daily routine: The day is structured by the work.
  • Self-realization: The employee pursues and achieves goals.
  • Status: He increases his reputation through work.
  • Contact: Through work, a person gets to know new social contacts in addition to family and friends.

All these positive effects of work - in addition to the wages that secure rent and livelihood - break away. It is obvious that self-esteem suffers. Some sufferers fall into depression, harbor self-doubt, and become addicts.

Others withdraw from the remaining social contacts - especially those who have been unemployed for a long time. Often the money available makes it possible no social participation. Public discussions about self-inflicted unemployment and lack of commitment do the rest.

Also the social consequences unemployment should not be underestimated: high unemployment can jeopardize political stability by increasing extremist forces.

Ways out of unemployment

The unemployment statistics look good: unemployment in Germany was As low in 2016 as it has been for 25 years no more. According to the Federal Employment Agency, there were 2.7 million people who were out of work. The unemployment rate fell to 6.1 percent, the lowest level since 1991.

Nevertheless, in March 2017, 5,138,000 million employable employees are still dependent on unemployment benefit and unemployment benefit II. If you are one of the named people, we would like you show five waysto get back into the job market.

First of all, the most important things: Don't rest on it. It is easy to fall into a valley of tears when you are guiltlessly unemployed because, for example, your job has been rationalized. However, such measures do not come overnight and, as a clever employee, the signs of the times should be recognized and prepared accordingly.

  • Employment agency

    The first and most obvious step leads to the employment agency, or employment agency for short. From a legal perspective, you must register as unemployed three months in advance. Here you can apply for unemployment benefits, have contact persons for further steps and receive information about further financial aid and support in further job searches.

  • further education

    By continuing your professional development and qualification, you will remain interesting for the job market. You can bring yourself up to date in your field or acquire urgently needed language skills.

  • retraining

    Those who simply cannot find a job in their learned profession or who can no longer work for health reasons should familiarize themselves with the idea of ​​retraining. However, whether the employment agency or the job center undertakes this retraining depends entirely on how promising your prospects are afterwards: For example, if you want to retrain in an area in which there is an oversupply of skilled workers, you will not be able to enforce your claims.

  • Distance learning

    Your self-discipline is required here. Those who wish can acquire university degrees such as a bachelor's or master's degree in an academic distance learning course. The effort is between 20 and 30 hours per week and can provide you with the additional qualifications you need to get fit for the job market.

  • self reflection

    If you are well qualified, your application documents are up to date and you still cannot find a green branch, you should analyze the reasons self-critically. Are you flexible enough or is a job only possible within a radius of 20 kilometers? You may also be able to work on your personal appearance. Read here the truth: Why you don't get the job.

As long as your unemployment isn't over two, at most three months you can explain this period as a phase of professional orientation. Anything beyond that, however, will leave gaps in your CV.

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