What is a human progress network

341 Tu Weiming Human prosperity and progress in Confucian thought Translated from the English by Andreas Thomsen The idea of ​​progress is linked to Confucian traditions in many ways. Technological progress, cultural creation, the generation of wealth, the building of political institutions and the formation of social structures are associated with it. In fact, any improvement in the state of the world through "civilization" is considered progress. This distinguishes the Confucian doctrine from the Taoist doctrine, which assumes that basically all attempts to artificially improve the economic, political, social or cultural situation of people ultimately have fatal consequences for the well-being of people and nature. For Taoists, therefore, the idea of ​​progress itself is fraught with undesirable effects. For legalists, on the other hand, progress is primarily about wealth and power, which is why they measure it by agricultural productivity and military success. It is often assumed that Confucians do not believe in historical progress because they believe that civilization reached its peak from the very beginning with the wise rulers and the three dynasties. In the 6th century BC BC, the time of Confucius, the empire was marked by disintegration and despite centuries of collaborative efforts to revive it, the Golden Age had never returned. However, this view is superficial and misleading. In fact, there are numerous indications that Confucius weighed the advantages and disadvantages of the three dynasties and made suggestions for the continuation or abandonment of the ritual practices of Xia, Shang and Zhou. His own preference was for the way of life in the last of the three dynasties, and he made it his mission to restore as much as possible of the lost system of "ritual and tu weiming music" of the Zhou dynasty. It was less about nostalgic memories of a distant past and more about creating lasting peace for the future. The style of government preferred by Confucius was embodied by the Duke of Zhou, who was known for acting according to three cardinal principles: 1. Respecting heaven and loving the people, 2. honoring virtue and punishing carefully, 3. paying attention to oneself to cultivate and to demand the same of his ministers. Thanks to his care for the people and the rigorous self-discipline of the elites, a system of rituals and music emerged that over the centuries helped to create lasting organic solidarity. Through the creation of a highly complex hierarchical order characterized by rituals and the sophisticated musical staging of differences in rank, »ritual and music« of the Zhou dynasty developed into an exemplary manifestation of the ancient Chinese art of rulership. The harmony underlying the bureaucracy celebrates the difference and in this way avoids the monotonous uniformity of a mechanical solidarity that is so characteristic of the legalistic control system. At the same time, by emphasizing “honor and intimacy”, she avoids the risk of uninhibited spontaneity degenerating into a kind of Taoist anarchism. In Confucianism, communities come about not by contract, but by a long, cumulative process of fruitful interaction between like-minded people headed by wise and righteous leaders. This process is based on the assumption that politics has an ethical dimension. It serves all people and is intended to create an environment that enables everyone to have a good life. The most important value under the Duke of Zhou was "virtue" (dé). Reverence for heaven and caring for the people were omnipresent in the ethos of Zhou rule. There is also a connection between heaven and people: "Heaven sees how people see and heaven hears how people hear." It took the Duke of Zhou over seven years to develop his grandiose system of "ritual and music." «To realize. First of all, the security of the people was taken care of and that they could thrive in human terms and make a living in Confucian thinking. This was followed by a gentle upbringing through moral persuasion, whereby the rule of law was supplemented by virtue and the rule of virtue by law. In both cases the ruler is compelled to submit to the ethics of responsibility, dealing with the complaints of the people and alleviating their suffering by the most effective means. As a result, scouts were sent across the country to collect folk songs and poems in which people would express their feelings. While Confucius believed that the revival of some aspects of the Duke of Zhou's "ritual and music" would make progress, a return to the Eastern Zhou has never considered a viable option. From the example of the Duke of Zhou, however, he learned that politics is inextricably linked with ethics. The purpose of politics is not to increase or even distribute power fairly. Rather, it has to provide a healthy environment that enables people to realize themselves. Politics should therefore eliminate conditions that are detrimental to the well-being of people and give them the opportunity to develop and improve their living conditions. In other words, the goal of politics is human prosperity. Since Confucius saw himself as the heir and mediator of the path the Duke of Zhou had trodden, human prosperity was also his ultimate concern, and therein lies the key to understanding the Confucian notion of progress. Progress is by definition not a state, but a dynamic process that is rooted in a cumulative tradition, but is continuously adapted to new situations by means of a built-in mechanism. Tradition requires constant self-renewal. When »ritual and music« become routine, it can diminish their radiance. If no countermeasures are taken at this point, there is a risk that they will degenerate into pure formality and ultimately lapse into lifeless ritualism. Ritualism imposes suffocating constraints on people and is therefore oppressive. This type of symbolic control is often enforced through punishment, which not infrequently results in violence. But when the violence gets out of hand, rebellion is unavoidable. The classic Chinese expression for "revolution" (géming) denotes the change in the "heavenly mandate". With the collapse of the Xia dynasty (approx. 1600 BC), the mandate went to the Shang, who made it 1046 BC. Had to leave the Zhou. Confucius extolled the superiority of the system of "ritual and music" devised by the Duke of Zhou, for it renewed the mandate of heaven that allowed the dynasty to last for centuries. So progress is possible if you diligently strive for it. A political system that succeeds in renewing Heaven's mandate is "progressive" because it creates the conditions for peace and prosperity and in this way benefits people. History means change, but that does not mean progress. The quality of rule is the most important criterion for assessing the progressiveness of an overall political situation, and collective efforts are required to maintain or even improve it. Strictly speaking, our contemporary understanding of progress only became part of the Confucian discourse in the last century. Indeed, aspects such as "historical inevitability" or economic growth within indigenous Confucian thought must always be placed in the overall context of a good life. That is why I use the Greek idea of ​​"human prosperity" to make the Confucian understanding of progress comprehensible. Needless to say, assessing progressive thinking in all Axial Aged civilizations, be it ancient Greece, Israel, India, or China, presents a similar conceptual challenge. Confucius faced the seemingly insoluble task of bringing order to the "Chinese" (Hua-Xia) community at a time when the empire was only a shadow of its glorious past. Zhou “ritual and music” fell into disrepair as royal rights were increasingly claimed by power-hungry liege lords who competed and warred for territory, material resources, and people. Confucius was realistic enough to realize that he would not be able to implement a fundamental restructuring of the political rules of the game. His solution, therefore, was to implement a moral education that was unprecedented in human history. He was convinced of human prosperity and progress in Confucian thinking that education should be open to all classes and also be geared towards the self-cultivation of the people. As it is said in the opening speech of "The Great Learning", supposedly penned by the Confucius student Zeng Zi (505-435 BC): "From the Son of Heaven to the common man, the care of the personality is the basis." This is reminiscent of Pierre Hadot's pioneering idea of ​​"spiritual exercises," but what Confucius envisioned and later worked out by his followers goes far beyond a way of life. The self as the center of relationships has both a communal and an individualistic aspect. In order to avoid the negative connotation of isolated individualism, the American sinologist William Ted de Bary suggests speaking of "personalism" in order to emphasize the self-cultivation aspect, because the idea of ​​dignity, self-determination, independence, freedom and individual rights is with the concept of personalism compatible. In contrast to the closed, static and privatized self, a person understood in this way is open, dynamic and transformative. Mengzi (around 370 - around 290 BC) particularly emphasizes the subjectivity of the person who is described as the "great body", the "original heart" or the "original consciousness". He believes that human nature is good and contains germs of morality which, if properly trained, can enable one to become a full human being. To understand what constitutes a person as a whole, we must turn to the classical Confucian scriptures. After Confucius realized that he would never be able to humanize politics according to his moral ideals, he turned his attention to learning, especially learning to be human. His approach is as demanding as it is straightforward. Confucius realized that people are just as emotional as they are social, aesthetic, political, historical, and metaphysical beings. Any attempt to reduce it to one of these aspects would consequently thwart the diversity and wholeness of being human. The Confucian classics are therefore a comprehensive and holistic way of grasping all the essential aspects of being human: The "Book of Songs" evokes feelings, the "Book of Rites" regulates social life, the "Book of Music "harmonizes relationships, the" Notes of the Wise Kings "encourage good governance, the" Spring and Autumn Annals "(a chronicle of Confucius' home state Lu) permeate historical consciousness and the" Book of Changes "examines the patterns of the cosmos . They all expand personal knowledge on the micro level, increase collective social and political competence on the meso level and strengthen the spiritual connection between heaven and man on the macro level. The starting point is self-cultivation, which pervades all three levels, brings together body, mind, heart, soul and spirit on the micro level, helps regulate family relationships, govern the state and bring peace on the meso level, while on the macro level it helps Unity of heaven and humanity. That such great successes can be achieved on all three levels with the help of self-cultivation is due to the organismic principle of unity. The idea that humanity forms a common body with heaven, earth and ten thousand things is not a romantic expression of universal brotherhood, but an ontological statement about what humanity actually is and a religious commitment to what it is should still be. Therefore Mengzi believed that the true subjectivity was the "big body" because it radiates outward to connect with an ever-expanding network of relationships. Indeed, through cultivation, man can overcome many excesses of subjectivism, such as egoism, nepotism, parochialism, nationalism, and even anthropocentrism, and thus arrive at a broader view of the world and beyond. This human ability is deeply personal, but also communal and cosmological. At first glance this may be reminiscent of expressions of vitalism or shamanism, as in Shinto or other traditional ethnic beliefs, but the underlying thinking is completely different. The humanistic Confucian vision not only assumes that the ultimate purpose of life is actually feasible, but should also be achieved in the course of normal human life. The lifeworld is not only secular, but human prosperity and progress in Confucian thinking also has creative, dynamic, vital and sacred aspects. "Heaven creates and man perfects" means partnership. This message implies that the creative power of heaven can also be applied on earth through human effort. In fact, as participants in the cosmic transformation and co-creators of the evolutionary process, we are not only able, but even obliged to realize the heavenly creative power on earth. Each one of us and our community as a whole is so inextricably linked with all other forms of being in the cosmos that we as humans have a duty to behave responsibly towards the cosmos. In this context, the legend about the mythical first emperor Yu, somewhat reminiscent of the biblical Noah, is extremely instructive. Through scientific rationality, compassion, charisma, courage, self-sacrifice, perseverance, and humility, Yu managed to overcome a devastating flood and create a sophisticated drainage system. He is revered as an exemplary personality who united heaven and earth for the benefit of mankind. In a deeper sense, our childlike reverence for heaven and our deep respect for earth are reflected in the healthy development of human beings. This human reading of the heavenly path is not anthropocentric, but has moral implications. The flood is an abnormal event, but we as human beings have a responsibility and are able to face the disaster by clearing the chaos and restoring order. And if we caused the misfortune ourselves, we shouldn't expect Heaven to judge it for us. This spiritual humanism is a comprehensive and holistic vision. Four aspects of total human experience - the self, the community, the earth (nature) and the sky - combine to form the highest expression of human prosperity: 1. Body, heart, mind, soul and spirit of the self combine, 2. the self and the community (home, neighborhood, village, city, province, nation, world and beyond) interact with one another in a fruitful way, 3. between humans and nature (animals, plants, trees, rocks, mountains, rivers and air) one develops sustainable and harmonious relationship, and 348 tu weiming 4. Human heart and spirit interact with the path of heaven. Human prosperity means that all four aspects are present and cared for. Progress cannot be measured solely on the basis of economic or political criteria. Wealth and power may be desirable, but must serve the good life of all people. In a highly differentiated modern society, differences are inevitable, also because many people subscribe to values ​​other than power or wealth. Nevertheless, the overall state of the world can be considered progressive if politics and economics develop in the direction of justice and decency. To do this, of course, bitter poverty and extreme inequalities at local, national, continental and global levels must be eliminated. This, in turn, can only succeed if we go beyond the concept of homo oeconomicus.No matter how highly we value the universal values ​​embodied in the "economic man" such as rationality, freedom, legality, human rights and human dignity, it does not change the fact that a number of equally important universal values ​​are not very pronounced in homo oeconomicus: compassion, Justice, decency, accountability and harmony. From a Confucian point of view and with a view to the future, the process of advancing human prosperity requires a fundamental rethinking of governments around the world. The widely recognized and actively promoted "universal values" of the "economic man" are essential to maintaining and restoring a world order in decline. However, they must be supplemented and deepened by a currently barely existing moral sense and spiritual awareness. 1. Compassion. Rationality was instrumentalized at the expense of the global common good in order to serve private, local, national or continental interests, which is why a rethink in the area of ​​practical reason is inevitable. The appeal to rational self-interest may often be necessary, but other forms of rationality, such as the "communicative" one in Habermas' or the "responsible one" in the imagination of Wang Yangming (1472-1529), must also be examined. Indeed, compassion (empathy, compassion, or pity) is vital to human prosperity and advancement in Confucian thinking. Even Adam Smith (1723-1790), the "father" of economics himself, valued his main philosophical work "The Theory of Ethical Emotions" (1759) far more than his economic "Wealth of Nations" (1776). For him, sympathy (compassion) and thus also altruism are an essential characteristic of being human. The Confucian tradition, as brilliantly demonstrated by the Mengzi School of Hearts and Minds, has a rich literature on the subject. Compassion is a feeling inherent in human nature and at the same time the basis of being fully human. Most of all, we need to learn to be human in order to cultivate our compassion so that it can work from the self to the family and from there to an expanding network of human relationships. This sensation is so extensible that it can extend beyond the human world and encompass heaven, earth and the ten thousand things. In addition to rational calculation, compassionate resonance is needed above all so that human connectivity can really become global. 2. Justice. One of the most important modern values ​​is freedom. Without them, the three great achievements of our time, namely the market economy, democratic polity and civil society, could not have come about. The idea of ​​the »free world« implies openness, participation, dynamism and an almost inexhaustible potential for growth. The unprecedented concentration of wealth and power currently observed at both the micro, meso and macro levels, however, puts this idealistic view to the test, as increasing inequality has become a major problem for the global human community become. The demand for justice is a matter of course between individual people, communities and states. However, political mismanagement in the question of justice now threatens the stability of social systems worldwide. Confucius' remark that inequality is more serious than poverty is often misunderstood as naive. In fact, however, he was deeply concerned about people's dwindling trust in the ruler's sense of justice. Mengzi made it clear that with proper governance, profit precedes profit and that this should not be jeopardized by the pursuit of short-term profits. Commitment to people's wellbeing is always a long-term commitment. If, on the other hand, the sole maxim is the pursuit of profit, this inevitably leads to competitive thinking and, after temporary success in the form of asset accumulation, inevitably leads to a vicious circle in which everyone fights everyone. Only when there is justice can organic group solidarity be sustained. Justice and compassion are closely related. The Golden Rule of Confucianism is similar to the Jewish principle advocated by Rabbi Hillel (around 110 BC-9 AD), formulated negatively: "What you don't want yourself, don't do to others either." The principle underlying the statement is reciprocity. Understanding what others prefer takes precedence over our obligation to "spread the good news." Not respecting the wishes of others, but imposing something on them that one believes is good for them, prevents a real exchange of ideas. To avoid this mistake, of course, we need to cultivate the art of listening closely. Only those who open their hearts to others can empathize with what they really want or want. The assumption that it is enough to be a »zoon logikon«, a being gifted with reason to know what is good for us, falls far short of the mark. Because without compassion we cannot be truly righteous. 3. Decency. Max Weber predicted that a highly rational modern society would be ruled by managers and professionals. We can add that the underlying ethos is legality. Rules and regulations are necessary to control the behavior of individuals, societies and states. Right now, the international community is often suffering from legal disputes and lawlessness. Legality, however, is essential for any form of global governance. And it seems that in almost all areas that pose a threat to human survival, new rules and regulations need to be worked out, written down and implemented. The aim is to reduce the risk of nuclear war, protect the environment, abolish slavery and fight terrorism. In addition, the financial crisis of 2008 has shown how urgently we need an international legal framework to regulate the financial markets. Human prosperity and progress in Confucian thinking The prerequisite for a global lawfulness is a cosmopolitan attitude. Nevertheless, legality alone cannot guarantee the survival and free development of humanity. If the vision of decency that transcends national borders and continents does not develop, national interests will continue to prevail. A new decency in international cooperation, on the other hand, can lead to business deals and negotiation results that do not exclusively serve national self-interests. However, this must not just be a change of style or strategic adjustments in diplomacy. For a global governance policy that includes the global community as a whole, what is needed is the understanding that justice and compassion must be an integral part of a new political mentality. Those who are more powerful and influential because they have more information, knowledge, money, and other resources should also understand the demands of the less fortunate for justice. The notion that foreign aid is altruistic gestures by individual countries is also outdated. In fact, it is about distributive justice, and that should be regulated at international level. The Confucian concepts of "everything that is under heaven" (Tanxia) or the "great community" (Datong) suggest that a temporary balance of power can be achieved through a hegemonic control mechanism, but lasting peace is only possible along the way which the wise rulers have shown, namely through a politics permeated with humanity and righteousness. In the face of environmental degradation and a crumbling world order, compassionate decency and justice have long been more than a mere possibility. Indeed, the emergence of terms such as "market with a human face" or "responsible capitalism" suggests that the approach to world affairs is gradually changing. 4. Accountability. Since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the validity of human rights has been recognized almost everywhere in the world. In the last few decades they have become something of a universal key value for cultural diversity and religious pluralism. They are often seen as a shining example of the legacy of the Enlightenment and are not infrequently used as an ideological weapon to discipline those who tread undemocratic paths. But even the critics of human rights do not fundamentally question their legitimacy and persuasive power, they just fall back on different interpretations. Asian values, for example, have been misused to justify perceived and actual authoritarianism at the expense of human rights. However, the impression that the Confucian emphasis on meritocracy and the elite's swearing in for the common good are inevitably at odds with human rights is misleading. Indeed, Zhang Pengjun, an important co-author of the Declaration of Human Rights, was a Confucian who also played an important role in building consensus. His insistence that it should be a non-religious document addressed to humanity as a whole was critical to making the Declaration of Human Rights truly cosmopolitan. Zhang was also instrumental in ensuring that, in addition to "reason", "conscience" was also included in Article 1, so that the document would not be legalistic in the secular sense without reference to the human spirit. Again and again, Zhang brought the conversation to the Confucian concept of humanity (rén). This is exactly the Confucian term that is described here as compassion or empathy, sympathy or pity. However, like the American Constitution, the Declaration of Human Rights is not a legal document. Rather, it is an ideal to orientate yourself towards in building a new community based on compassion, justice, and decency. The concept of accountability is an integral part of the human rights discourse. By demonstrating that all human beings have inalienable rights - including political, economic, social, cultural and group rights - the Declaration of Human Rights ultimately obliges world leaders to strive for lasting peace. This comprehensive vision, which is expressed in the Declaration of Human Rights, is based on the conviction that all human beings should be free as rational beings and that their freedom must be protected and guaranteed by state law. Each of us is jointly responsible for ensuring that all people are treated fairly. Whenever individuals or groups suffer from the violation of their basic human rights by an arbitrary authority, those of us fortunate enough to be protected by law awaken the compassion of those of us who are fortunate enough to be protected by the law. It is our duty to stand by those around us who are suffering and to see that the unjust are exposed and corrected. A world order that really takes human rights seriously would have to be something like a fiduciary community. This undoubtedly idealistic endeavor, to which the authors of the Declaration of Human Rights subscribed, is rooted in the devastating experience of World War II and should help to build a community of trust. But this also shows how fruitless the human rights discourse can be if the strong and powerful do not live up to their responsibilities. From a Confucian point of view, only the sense of duty of the elite can guarantee the well-being of the people, because legal protection requires a responsible government. The human rights discourse must be an international concern that goes beyond national interests. Rights that encourage independent individuals to strive for wealth and power show at best how the human rights discourse is misused as a justification for market activities. The rights of the people are closely linked to the responsibility of the elites. Correct politics (good governance) must manage wealth and power well and create a healthy environment in which people can lead a safe and adequate life that gives them enough space for self-actualization. Confucius ’moral upbringing does not include class differences, but focuses on cultivating the elite ethics of responsibility. According to our modern understanding, personal rights are not granted by the ruler, but are an integral part of human dignity. However, the Confucian insistence on human government imposes enormous obligations on the ruler, as it allows people to claim their everyday economic and political rights. The functional equivalent of Heaven's mandate is the general confidence of the people in the ruler's ability to guarantee a decent life for all. The fact that there are so many protests against injustice in today's world should therefore not come as a surprise. Because while the legal awareness of the people has increased overall, the sense of responsibility of the newly emerging rich and powerful elites often leaves much to be desired. Of course, universal values ​​such as human rights, legality, freedom and reason are also anchored in the thinking of homo oeconomicus. However, the Confucian concept of human prosperity makes it clear that values ​​such as responsibility, decency, justice and compassion must also be cultivated for sustainable human progress. As much as he may heed them, with his values ​​alone the "economic man" is not up to the challenge that humanity is currently facing in the face of environmental destruction and the crumbling world order. Rationality, especially instrumental or functional rationality, can help to solve tangible problems, but a guiding spirit of the world community must go beyond what "social engineering" can offer. Without compassion, rationality is nothing more than the cold balancing of interests. And compassion is neither irrational nor unreasonable, but a meaningful way for humans to respond to the suffering of others. While strict rationality is free from affect, compassion often goes hand in hand with reason. Justice in no way contradicts freedom. However, if this is not restricted by humanity and righteousness, it can quickly degenerate into a destructive, purely possessive individualism. Justice, on the other hand, can redirect our selfish impulses in favor of the common good. One sign of globalization is the fact that our material choices and options are rapidly multiplying, while at the same time the gap between haves and non-haves widening and the risk of outbreaks of violence as a result of tension and conflict increases. Since community solidarity is difficult to achieve equally at all levels of society, distributive justice is all the more important. Especially since political authorities without a ubiquitous sense of justice tend all too easily to sacrifice freedom in favor of security as soon as an actual or perceived threat situation warrants it. Legality (legality) is a prerequisite for maintaining social order. However, laws such as human prosperity and progress in Confucian thinking, Confucius notes, can prevent people from breaking rules and regulations, but they do not induce a feeling of shame. Without decency in a society - however litigious it may be - nobody can feel safe in the long term, so that well-being ultimately becomes a luxury. The system of "ritual and music" as created by the Duke of Zhou is only of historical significance - and yet at the same time significant beyond history. Because in a new world order, the world community will primarily be defined by ritual decency (li), without which written laws are little more than empty rhetoric. The dignity of the individual is an essential feature of the human rights discourse. We see people as an end in themselves because their inherent rights enable them to embody inalienable and inviolable values. For Confucius, real learning was something you did for the sake of learning.It is not just about the acquisition of knowledge or skills, but above all about personal development. The starting point of this self-cultivation philosophy is the concrete, living person in the here and now. The Confucian understanding of the dignity of the individual also includes self-respect. We should be responsible for our own rights, but also learn to respond to the rights of others. True subjectivity is open, dynamic, and transformative. A person blessed with it has features that are both communal and individual, and often more public than private. 5. Harmony. Civil courage is not only compatible with the dignity of the individual, but also an attitude underlying the human rights discourse. The basic aim of the discourse is the appreciation of all people, but in practice this abstract universalism only rarely works. This principle is only effective if it is applied in specific cases, which, however, requires an understanding of cultural diversity. To do this, we have to develop an appropriate attitude towards others - especially when they are radically different, for which tolerance is a minimum requirement. However, it is not enough to grasp the integrity of others on a rational basis alone. In addition, we also need to empathize with the contexts in which they think and act. And we can improve our sense of adequacy without slacking off in our fight against genocide, torture, slavery, child abuse, gender inequality, racial discrimination and other dehumanizing crimes. The Confucian idea of ​​"harmony without uniformity" is based on the insight that cultural diversity offers the opportunity to relate to and learn from one another. This knowledge cannot be rated highly enough, because homogenization only leads to mechanical solidarity, reduced zest for life and restrained creativity. In fact, differences are the prerequisite for harmony, which is the opposite of uniformity. For Emile Durkheim, »organic solidarity« based on the division of labor means harmony between body and mind on the micro level, harmony between groups on the meso level and harmony between humans and nature on the macro level. Looking to the future, survival, and especially the prosperity of humanity, requires that we 1. view compassion as the main virtue of our moral education, 2. develop theories of law and justice for different cultural contexts, and 3. try to transform the conflict-ridden world into a more humane one Transform place. In order to be able to settle our disputes without resorting to written rules and regulations, more effective forms of negotiation and communication are of course required. In addition, we must 4. promote the establishment of an ethics of responsibility to which all members of the world community, but especially the rich and powerful, feel committed. And we must 5. learn to appreciate cultural diversity and ensure more harmony in the world through intercultural dialogue. Real progress can occur when individuals, societies, and humanity as a whole learn to be more compassionate, fairer, decent, responsible, and harmonious. As a holistic path to human prosperity, a spiritual humanism may serve as a point of reference. It is time for the "economic man" of our secular age to transform into a virtuous man with a social conscience, cultural understanding, ecological awareness and religious sensitivity, for there are truly compelling reasons for this.