What are some examples of ad hominem

Solution Worksheet Typical Argumentation Errors

Type of argumentation error: Circular reasoning (vicious circle)

Example: Coffee stimulates because it has a stimulating effect.
Explanation: Justification is a different formulation for the assertion.


Type of argumentation error: Fallacy (Non sequitur; Latin for "it does not follow")

Example: Lisa is a man because all men are human and Lisa is human.
Explanation: To confirm the thesis, an argument is used that is true but does not prove the thesis that has been put forward. It is not a sufficient reason.


Type of argumentation error: argumentum ad hominem (Latin "Evidence speech to people")

Example: Tom's position is to be rejected because Tom is stupid.
Explanation: The position of an opponent is attempted to be invalidated by attacking the person.


Type of argumentation error: Output opinions as facts using a killer phrase

Example: Nobody will seriously doubt that Mozart is the best composer of all time.
Explanation: The aim is to use so-called killer phrases such as "Is there really someone who believes that ...", "It is common knowledge that ..." or "Everyone with common sense knows ..." to pass subjective opinions out as facts and thereby denote the fact to muzzle others.


Type of argumentation error: Naturalistic fallacy

Example: Abortions cannot be morally condemned, because nature also drifts. In addition to intentional abortions, there are so-called spontaneous abortions, i.e. abortions from natural causes.
Explanation: It is a so-called naturalistic fallacy, because from being, i.e. H. how something is cannot be influenced by what is ought, i.e. H. how something should be closed.


Type of argumentation error: generalization

Example: German employees are valued worldwide, because Germans are characterized by punctuality and a love of order.
Explanation: It is a (clich├ęd) generalization, because even if these characteristics are often ascribed to the Germans, there are of course many Germans who are permanently late or who love chaos.

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