What is spp in Staphylococcus spp

Genus:
Staphylococcus Species (species):- S. aureus
- S. capitis
- S. cohnii
- S. epidermidis
- S. galinarum
- S. haemolyticus
- S. hominis
- S. intermedius
- S. lugdunensis
- S. saprophyticus
- S. warneri
- S. xylosus
Other Microbiological characteristics:

- Aerobic, gram-positive cocci
- Staphylococcus spp are divided into 2 categories:
• Coagulase-positive S .: mainly S. aureus
• Coagulase negative S .: most Staphylococcus spp including S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus

Incubation period:- The incubation period for staph infections is highly variableEpidemiology:
- Worldwide distribution Infections:
- Frequent cause of human infections in practically all parts of the body
- Amongst all staphylococci, S. aureus and S. epidermidis are the most common germs isolated from clinical test material
- The incidence of staphylococcal infections is increasing, partly probably due to the frequent use of central venous catheters (S. epidermidis)
- S. aureus has a tendency to cause abscesses (in practically all parts of the body)
- S. saprophyticus is responsible for 10-20% of acute UTIs
- Staphylococcus spp is the common cause of endocarditis Diagnosis:
- CultureTherapy:
- Staphylococcal penicillins (oxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin) are the best remedies for methicillin-sensitive staphylococci; 1st generation cephalosporins are also effective
- A high proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp and a significant proportion of the S. aureus strains are resistant to methicillin (MRSA); a glycopeptide antibiotic (vancomycin, teicoplanin) can be used in these cases
- Coagulase-negative staphylococci often show multi-resistance (e.g. S. haemolyticus) Alternatives:- Methicillin-sensitive S .: 2nd generation cephalosporins, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, penicillin + sulbactam
- MRSA .: fusidic acid, administration of antibiotics according to antibiogram

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