How is the disease of the protists treated?

BioTOP 4, textbook

B 1 The Tse TseFliege transmits the pathogen that causes sleeping sickness. B 2 Spherical bacteria (cocci) under the microscope (8,500x magnification) 48 Pathogens What do we mean by pathogens? Pathogens are organisms or substances that cause harmful processes in other living beings. Pathogens can be bacteria, fungi, unicellular organisms or viruses. Which pathogens do we differentiate? Fungal infections can occur in different parts of the body. Most of them are harmless. Problems only arise with a weakened immune system. Skin fungus, nail fungus and fungal infections of the vagina are becoming more and more common. Many diseases occurring in the tropics, so-called tropical diseases, are caused by animal protists. Amoebic dysentery, malaria and sleeping sickness are just a few examples of such diseases. Pathogens often use foreign organisms (hosts) to multiply. If the pathogen alternately uses different animal species or humans as hosts, this is called host change. The causative agent of sleeping sickness is transmitted by the tse-tse fly ( B 1). He goes through a host switch between the insect host and the vertebrate host. The pathogen occurs primarily in the blood, lymph, bone marrow, spinal fluid and in the brain. Sleeping sickness occurs in the entire tropical belt of Africa. Fever, chills and a rash appear a few weeks after being infected with the pathogen. This leads to confusion and seizures. If left untreated, sleeping sickness leads to a sleep-like twilight state and death. Bacteria are simply built, single-celled organisms ( B 2). They can excrete toxic metabolic products and thus damage the body. Sometimes they also feed on tissue or blood cells, or they cause a high fever, which can be fatal for the sick person. Bacteria can cause a wide variety of diseases, such as otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis (disease of the lungs), cholera (disease of the small intestine) and tetanus (disease of the nerves). Viruses are not living beings because they do not have their own metabolism and cannot reproduce on their own. However, they can multiply in other cells (host cells) by using the host cell to produce new viruses ( B 3). This damages the host cell. If a virus-infected cell dies, it bursts and releases the newly formed viruses. The viruses then attack other cells. The diseases runny nose, flu, polio, jaundice (hepatitis), rabies and AIDS are examples of viral infections. Virus infections are very contagious because some viruses can be transmitted through the air (through droplets, for example when you cough or sneeze). In addition, the viruses change very quickly, making the body's immune response more difficult. You know ... In recent years, infections with hantaviruses have increased in Central Europe. These are transmitted through the feces, urine and saliva of mice and rats. The infection can manifest itself with mild, flu-like symptoms up to acute kidney failure and usually has to be treated in hospital. The virus is infected by inhaling the dust from the dried excretions of the rodents or by contact with skin wounds. Worksheet xn7ph4 For testing purposes only - property of publisher öbv

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