What is rainwater absorption

The layout of the GNSS elements

Satellite navigation pp 135-176 | Cite as

  • Hans Dodel
  • Dieter Häupler
First Online:


This chapter describes the general design and dimensioning of a GNSS system, starting with the question of whether the navigation signals generated with atomic clocks should be accommodated under controlled conditions on the ground or in the flying satellite. The satellite payload is then assessed on the basis of the selected operating frequency using route balances for alternative carrier frequencies. The choice of the carrier frequency as a function of the propagation effects (atmosphere, rain attenuation, ionospheric signal propagation delay, scintillation) is discussed. Then the quality criteria of a satellite constellation, which lead to a constellation selection via an evaluation, are considered. Local improvement through pseudolites, continuity criteria, integrity considerations and the evaluation of the performance criteria round off the chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DodelSatelliteCommunicationsGautingGermany
  2. 2. Consulting engineerOttobrunnGermany