Are Bangladeshi graduates compatible with Indian graduates

LIPortal

According to the International Monetary Fund (abbr .: IMF), the Bangladeshi economy recorded growth, that is, growth in gross domestic product, of 7.4% in 2019. In 2019 it was ranked fourth among the fastest growing economies in the world. This high economic growth resulted from increasing industrial production and a structural change in the composition of the economic sectors measured by their respective share in the gross domestic product. This change describes a change from an economy dominated by the primary sector of agriculture to an economy focused on industry and services. In general, both patterns of development are also formulated in growth theories, the application of which is largely in agreement in economics. In the case of Bangladesh, these two development patterns have contributed to a consistently positive development of the economy since the early 1990s. Previously, gross domestic product growth had stagnated below an average of 4%. The reasons for this included natural disasters and political unrest. These two factors also play a role in the economic development of Bangladesh today. However, the changes in the proportionate composition of the sectors in the economy as a whole, but also ongoing compensation through international development cooperation and various other measures, made economic growth more shock-resistant to such events. The re-categorization of Bangladesh by the World Bank can be seen as a visible result of these developments over the past three decades. Together with Kenya, Myanmar and Tajikistan, Bangladesh was classified in the group of countries with a lower middle income for the first time in July 2015. It previously had low income country status. The reclassification is based on the average gross national income per capita, which by 2015 had reached USD 1,314. However, the differences between the individual annual salaries fluctuate extremely. In addition, the income gap varies between sectors.

Agriculture

In terms of the number of people employed in agriculture, the agricultural sector is the largest employer of all economic sectors. There the number of employees is almost half of the total population of the country. In terms of financial income, on the other hand, the agricultural sector is the one that generates the lowest share of gross domestic product with just under a sixth. Bangladesh's agriculture (transliterated: kṛṣi) is 80% dominated by rice cultivation. In Bangladesh, its technology is mainly based on old cultivation methods, such as the use of ox-drawn wooden plows with a comparatively large amount of time and labor. Thanks to new varieties, the rice yield per hectare of rice cultivation area has tripled since the 1970s and, at around 2,500 kg rice per hectare per year, is below the global average. General problems of agriculture in Bangladesh are a decrease in soil fertility due to the often one-sided use of the soil in the course of the cultivation of monocultures, water pollution and a decrease in biodiversity. Certain adaptation strategies in agriculture to the changed environmental conditions due to climate change in combination with the negative effects of human activity are being pursued and will continue to be sought. Possible solutions are the breeding of ducks instead of chickens, the reforestation of coastal areas to protect residents and land, the creation of floating beds in areas that are always or mostly flooded, the cultivation of more salt-resistant rice varieties or plant species that have a higher tolerance to a high Show salt content in the water, for example kohlrabi or sunflower. Other very important crops are wheat, potatoes, jute, mangoes, coconut, cucumber, tomatoes, cauliflower, pumpkins, onions. Except for jute, it is mostly produced for local needs. Fishing is important. Not only for the domestic market, but also for trade with the Indian state of West Bengal, the fish Hilsa is particularly important, for which the demand in West Bengal is very high. Shrimp farming is also carried out in some coastal areas, especially for export. This has serious ecological consequences, for example the salt content of the soil is increased.

Industry

The processing of agricultural products is the largest area of ​​the industrial sector. The production of milk powder, canned fruit, pickled vegetables and the processing of jute are just a few examples. On the domestic market, the dominant Bangladeshi companies in the entertainment electronics sector include laptops , Smartphones, household appliances and many other things Walton, in the field of edible oil it is the companies Teer and Fresh, which each also produce, for example, flours and packaged drinking water. Building materials made in Bangladesh, such as cement and bricks, are also sold on the local market. Bangladesh's strongest economic sector is the textile industry. In the 1980s, South Korean textile producers began to relocate their production to Bangladesh. In this way they circumvented quotas for textile imports in industrialized countries. Since then, the textile industry has grown to around four million employees and is characterized by poor working conditions. The wages are usually poor, the working conditions are not contractually regulated, the working environment contains many health risks, protective clothing is not or rarely provided, the working hours are often twelve hours a day and the minimum age of the employees is often not observed. Furthermore, textile factories have collapsed or caught fire several times. The collapse of the Rana Plaza factory, which killed over 1,100 people, occurred in April 2013.

Services

About 30% of the working population in Bangladesh work in the service sector. Since around 1997 they have generated more than half of the gross domestic product. For example, the share of the service sector was around 56% in 2018. Important areas of this sector are information and communication technology, the administration of the country, development and expansion of the infrastructure, tourism, transport, but also the area of ​​finance. The number of people employed in this sector is probably much higher than 30% - at least seasonally - since most of the gainful employment that is mainly carried out informally would also belong to the service sector. In this area there are also (internal) seasonal workers who actually generate their income in agriculture, but move to the metropolitan areas during the drier winter months when agriculture does not provide enough income. Rickshaw driving and construction are often activities they can do. These are often paid per day and very low.

Remissen

Remissen (transliterated technical term: prabāsī-perita artha) are remittances from migrant workers who are gainfully employed abroad. They transfer part of their income to their home countries, where they mostly serve as financial support for their family members who have stayed there. This can also refer to former Bangladeshi citizens or their descendants abroad who have permanently settled abroad. Remissen therefore does not represent a separate “economic sector” according to the classic division, but are nevertheless often of enormous importance for the economies of the respective countries of origin of the migrant workers. In the case of Bangladesh, the remittances that flow into Bangladesh account for over 10% of the Bangladeshi economy. With continuous growth in the total amount of draws per year, they amounted to approximately 12.4 billion US dollars in the 2018-2019 fiscal year alone, according to the Central Bank of Bangladesh. This amount, and thus the share of the remiss in the Bangladeshi economy, is almost on a par with the respective values ​​of (incoming) foreign direct investments, government spending on development support or the annual turnover of the clothing industry and has sometimes even exceeded them. The four countries from which the highest total remittances came from were constant between 2017 and February 2020 - Saudi Arabia first, then the United Arab Emirates, the United States of America, and fourth Kuwait. The number of those who go abroad for an often temporary job is estimated at between 226,000 and 500,000 people annually. It seems difficult to determine their exact number, among other things because the periods of their international activities overlap. For example, in 2008 alone, around 875,000 workers were recruited from Bangladesh. The countries in which most of the Bangladeshi migrant workers work do not necessarily coincide with the countries from which the highest sums of draws are transferred. Reasons for this are, for example, the differences between the countries with regard to the average per capita income, but also the activities that the workers pursue in the respective country. For example, after the United Arab Emirates, India is probably the country where most of the Bangladeshi migrant workers are employed, followed by Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Qatar, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Kuwait, Bahrain and Italy. The place of work, the quality of the working conditions and the length of stay tend to depend on the training of the employed person. Migrant workers who have received little or no schooling are usually employed in the low-wage professions in the countries on the Persian Gulf or in Southeast Asia or move seasonally to other countries in South Asia, where the working conditions are comparatively poor and the work assignment lasts for a few months Years is limited. In these countries they dominated some professional groups. For example, Bangladeshi migrant workers, who made up around 18% of Bangladeshi migrant workers globally in 2014, were the most common domestic helpers or cleaners in some countries in the Middle East. More educated people are migrating to Europe, Australia and North America in particular. Around 60% of Bangladeshi migrant workers are untrained or barely trained, mainly in the construction or service sector in the Gulf States and Southeast Asia. Since 1976 the remits have proven to be a stable source of income, on which global economic crises or an economic downturn in the respective working country had a comparatively small negative effect, at least in the past - measured by the sum of the remits per fiscal year. This means that, for example, in the fiscal year 2009-2010 the total number of draws in Bangladesh did not decline, but its growth slowed somewhat compared to previous years. So far, the returns to Bangladesh have rather fluctuated in combination with the oil price. Since most of the Bangladeshi migrant workers were and are gainfully employed in the Middle East, but the financial crises there combined with a drop in the oil price also temporarily slowed the construction boom, a fluctuation in the oil price affected the Bangladeshis working there with poorly paid jobs and thus those arriving in Bangladesh Remissen out.

Mining

The Geological Survey of Bangladesh (abbreviation: GSB) is the most important government organization in Bangladesh, which is dedicated to the identification and research of the occurrence of mineral raw materials in Bangladeshi soils. It has discovered many coal and gas deposits in Bangladesh and provides information on the approximate location of the deposits on its website. In addition to natural gas, crude oil and different types of coal, it lists rubble, hard rock, lime, metallic minerals, quartz sand, sand-gravel mixtures, different sands, clay and peat as the proven mineral raw materials that occur in Bangladesh. The extraction of the energy resources natural gas, crude oil and coal is central to the economy. Natural gas reserves are considered to be abundant in Bangladesh and are distributed among 27 reservoirs that have been discovered so far. Of these, 17 gas fields are developed, from which, for example, 27.5 billion cubic meters were extracted in 2018. Because of these volumes, Bangladesh is always placed among Asia's twenty largest natural gas producers. In addition, natural gas is the country's most important energy source. With around 62% of the electricity mix, it is crucial for all electricity generated in Bangladesh. The figures on how long Bangladesh's natural gas reserves could last with current consumption vary widely. It is mostly assumed that the production of natural gas will remain profitable for the next ten to 15 years. The demand for natural gas exceeds domestic production, which is why natural gas is also imported. One of the reasons for this is that natural gas is used for the production of fertilizers, which in turn are intended to ensure that local agriculture is self-sufficient in terms of food. Oil is only produced in the Sylhet division in the north-east of the country. One of the natural gas production facilities near the town of Haripur (Sylhet) first produced crude oil in 1986. For a long time, this well was the only documented indigenous oil well that had brought in around 90 million liters of oil by the time it was closed in 1994. In 2012, additional oil deposits were discovered in some of the older natural gas fields in Sylhet. These now deliver up to 18,000 liters of crude oil every day. This reduces the country's strong dependence on oil imports from abroad. Coal is a comparatively new mining product in Bangladesh, which has been mined by multinational companies in particular since the 1990s, after deposits were identified by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh in certain areas, for example in the Barapukuria region in 1985. The proportion of coal as an energy source for power generation is to be expanded in the future, among other things with the aim of reducing the proportion of petroleum products in power generation. However, this will not have to be made possible exclusively through domestic coal, but predominantly through coal imports. The problem with the extraction of these energy resources in Bangladesh remains the lack of local technical capacities and specialist knowledge in order to profitably extract the deposits, which are sometimes difficult to access. Therefore, foreign or multinational companies are often involved in the extraction of these mineral resources, such as the state-owned Bangladesh Petroleum Exploration and Production Company Limited (abbreviation: BAPEX) and the Russian company Gazprom, which was last entrusted with the development of several deposits in 2020.